Second Vienna Award

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See also: First Vienna Award
Hungarian recovered territory under the Vienna Awards.

The Second Vienna Award was the revanchist settlement of two territorial disputes arising out of the Treaty of Trianon, which were now being arbitrated by Germany and Italy at a conference in Vienna.

The Award had in mind Article 19 of the League of Nations' Covenant, which stated:

The Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsideration by Members of the League of Treaties which have become inapplicable, and the consideration of international conditions which might endanger the peace of the world.[1]

On 30th August 1940, the arbitrators assigned the territory of Northern Transylvania, including all of Maramureș and part of Crișana, from Romania to Hungary, a revachist objective of the latter.[2]

Texts of the Second Vienna Award

There were several Protocols issued at the conclusion of the conference.[3]

A summary of the Award is here:

  • The final route of the border line, which separates Romania from Hungary, will correspond to the one marked on the geographical map attached here. A Romanian-Hungarian commission will determine the details of the route on the spot.
  • The Romanian territory assigned to Hungary will be evacuated by Romanian troops within 15 days and handed over in good order. The different phases of the evacuation and the occupation, as well as their modalities will be fixed within a Romanian-Hungarian commission. The Hungarian and Romanian governments will ensure that the evacuation and occupation are carried out in full order.
  • All Romanian subjects, settled on this day on the territory to be ceded by Romania, acquire Hungarian nationality without any formalities. They will be allowed to opt in favor of the Romanian nationality within 6 months. Those people who exercise this right, will leave the Hungarian territory within an additional period of 1 year and will be allowed to move into Romania. They will be able to take, without any hindrance, their movable property, to liquidate their immovable property, until the moment of their departure, and to take with them the resulting product. If the liquidation fails, these people will be compensated by Hungary. Hungary will resolve all issues related to the transplantation of optants in a broad and accommodating manner.
  • Romanian subjects of Hungarian race, established in the territory [forcibly] ceded in 1919/20 by Hungary to Romania and which remained under the sovereignty of the state, receive the right to opt for Hungarian nationality, within a period of 6 months. The principles set out in paragraph 3 shall also apply to people exercising this right.
  • The Hungarian government solemnly undertakes to fully assimilate the Romanian people with other Hungarian subjects, who, on the basis of the above arbitration, will acquire Hungarian nationality. On the other hand, the Romanian government takes the same solemn commitment regarding its Hungarian subjects, who will remain on the Romanian territory.
  • The details resulting from the transfer of sovereignty will be regulated by a direct agreement between the Romanian and Hungarian governments.
  • Should any difficulties or doubts arise during the application of this arbitration, the Romanian and Hungarian governments will seek to reach an agreement directly. If no agreement is reached, the dispute will be submitted to the governments of Germany and Italy, which will adopt a final solution.

Footnotes

  1. Danger Spots of Europe by Bernard Newman, London, 1938, p.20.
  2. Árpád E. Varga, Transylvania's History at Kulturális Innovációs Alapítvány
  3. Documents on German Foreign Policy, by an Editorial Board, HMSO, London, 1957,pps:581-587