House of Habsburg

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House of Habsburg
Habsburg COA.png
Country Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Sicily, Duchy of Burgundy, Netherlands, Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sardinia
Founder Radbot, Count of Habsburg
Final ruler Charles 1st
Founding year 1010
Dissolution Nov 1918
Ethnicity Germanic, Spanish (see details)

The House of Habsburg, also the House of Austria, was a royal house founded in the 10th century by Radbot, Count of Habsburg. Their paternal ancestors were Germanic, and first provided a monarch to reign in the Holy Roman Empire during the 13th century, where they gained Austria. Between 1452 and 1780, the Habsburgs provided many Holy Roman Emperors. The dynasty accumulated several other holdings, building the transcontinental Spanish Empire which at its peak was one of the largest in history.


In total, sixteen Habsburg monarchs, including twelve emperors, sporadically reigned over the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, as Kings of the Romans and Roman-German Emperors. After inheriting the Kingdom of Spain, where they provided five monarchs, a branch of the family, with Philip I of Castile at its head was established. The branches remained close allies, until the death of the Spanish line with Charles II of Spain. The Austrian line died out not long after in 1780, with Maria Theresa of Austria as the last paternal Habsburg monarch. The rights of the dynasty then passed to the House of Lorraine becoming the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

The eventful religious and political climate of the 17th century, saw the Habsburgs championing the Catholic side in the Thirty Years' War, contrary to the partisans of Protestantism. They also built up a rivarly with the Bourbons of France, on the basis of a prestige struggle to become Europe's most powerful dynasty. Forces allied to the Habsburg Empire also defended Christendom in the Ottoman–Habsburg Wars, stopping the advancement of Asiatic races into Europe. The Catholic Holy League famously turned the Asiatic horde back at the Battle of Vienna in 1683.


List of Habsburg monarchs

Kings of the Romans

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor
Rudolph I of Germany.png Rudolph I of Germany 29 September 1273 15 July 1291 Elective post. Gained influence as archetypal feudal warrior-statesman. Succeeded Alfonso X of Castile from House of Burgundy-Spain.
Albert I of Germany.png Albert I of Germany 24 June 1298 1 May 1308 Son of Rudolph I of Germany. Had a rivalry with Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg who some princes elected to curb Habsburg power.
Frederick III of Germany.png Frederick III of Germany
(The Fair)
19 October 1314 13 January 1330 Son of Albert I of Germany. In conflict with Louis the Bavarian, then reigned jointing with him.
Albert II of Germany.png Albert II of Germany 18 March 1438 27 October 1439 Son-in-law of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor of the House of Luxembourg. Son of Albert IV, Duke of Austria.

Holy Roman Emperors

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor.png Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor 19 March 1452 19 August 1493 Elective post. Son of Ernest, Duke of Austria. Succeeded Sigismund from the House of Luxemburg.
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.png Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor 16 February 1486 12 January 1519 Son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.png Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 28 June 1519 16 January 1556 Grandson of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. Son of Philip I of Castile.
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.png Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor 16 January 1556 25 July 1564 Brother of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Son of Philip I of Castile.
Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.png Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor November 1562 12 October 1576 Son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor.png Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor 30 June 1575 20 January 1612 Son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor.png Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor 23 January 1612 20 March 1619 Brother of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor. Son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor.png Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor 10 March 1619 15 February 1637 Nephew of Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor. Son of Charles II, Archduke of Austria.
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.png Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor 18 November 1637 2 April 1657 Son of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.png Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor 6 March 1657 5 May 1705 Son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.
Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.png Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor 1 May 1705 17 April 1711 Son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor.png Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor 22 December 1711 20 October 1740 Brother of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. Son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Queen of Hungary and Archduchess of Austria

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor
Maria Theresa of Austria by Andreas Moeller.png Maria Theresa of Austria 20 October 1740 29 November 1780 daughter of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire.

Kings of Spain

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.png Charles I of Spain 14 March 1516 16 January 1556 Son of Joanna of Castile from the House of Trastámara. Grandson of the Catholic Monarchs.
Philip II of Spain.png Philip II of Spain 16 January 1556 13 September 1598 Son of Charles I of Spain.
Philip III of Spain.png Philip III of Spain 13 September 1598 31 March 1621 Son of Philip II of Spain.
Philip IV of Spain.png Philip IV of Spain 31 March 1621 17 September 1665 Son of Philip III of Spain.
Charles II of Spain.png Charles II of Spain 17 September 1665 1 November 1700 Son of Philip IV of Spain.