Social nationalism (also called revolutionary nationalism) is a blanket term, used to describe the various integral nationalist movements, which place a strong and revolutionary focus on the social-welfare of the working-classes. Such movements arose initially out of the generation radicalised by the First World War, who positioned themselves as the radical centre or third position in opposition to both international communism and holding a deep suspicion of international finance as manifested politically in liberal and freemasonic plutocracy. Some of these movements came to power in Europe; most notably the Fascists in Italy, the National Socialists in Germany, the Arrow Cross in Hungary and the Ustaše in Croatia. Meanwhile, for a time the Legionaries in Romania and the Falange in Spain had some coalition influence over policy in their respective countries, but never ruled outright.
A significant part of the movement, found its theoretical origins in national syndicalism and could be argued to be a reconquest of socialism after the Second International had fallen under the complete control of the internationalist Marxists. Some have argued that when in power, the movement was more Bonapartist than in opposition, placing a strong focus on hierarchy and order. In many cases, ideas originating from Georges Sorel, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Friedrich Nietzsche, Oswald Spengler, Hubert Lagardelle, Sergio Panunzio and others were utilised, but not applied in a dogmatic fashion. Many movements associated with the worldview, held that European civilisation was in a process of decline and could only be regenerated through the use of heroic, revolutionary violence, to initiate a palingenetic rebirth.