Fascism (broad sense)
Fascism in a broad sense is a term used to describe various nationalist movements which arose initially out of the generation radicalised by the First World War. One example is Italian fascism (fascism in a narrow sense). These movements positioned themselves as the radical centre or third position in opposition to both communist socialism and liberal democratic laissez-faire capitalism. Some of these movements came to power in Europe; most notably the Fascists in Italy, the National Socialists in Germany, the Arrow Cross in Hungary and the Ustaše in Croatia. Meanwhile, for a time the Legionaries in Romania and the Falange in Spain had some coalition influence over policy in their respective countries, but never ruled outright. The Spanish regime of Francisco Franco which outlasted World War II is usually not considered to have been fascist or to have changed into a non-fascist regime.
How to classify the movement on the left-right spectrum has been frequently discussed with supporters of the different views citing different inspirations and aspects of the movement(s) as support for their views. A significant part of the movement originated in National Syndicalism but it came to place a strong focus on hierarchy and order. Another influence was Integral Nationalism or Integralism. Egalitarianism was explicitly rejected as was class conflicts with strong emphasis placed on building a shared national community and solidarity.
Some of the views associated with the movement held that the European race and civilisation was in a process of catastrophic decline (such as through the effects of harmful ideologies and dysgenics) and could only be regenerated through revolutionary changes and heroism.
The Communist Soviet Union during the 1930s used the derogatory term "social fascism" to describe social democracy and similar ideologies, claiming that they were at this time variants of fascism because of argued similar economic and social policies (but much less nationalist), and which were seen as preventing the communist revolution from occurring.
"Neo-fascism" is a term applied to various nationalist movements after World War II. Due to the association with National Socialist Germany the term is considered derogatory, is often used as a form of ad hominem, and may be applied to nationalist movements with few similarities with the fascist movements that existed before and during World War II. The term may even be applied as a form of ad hominem to parties that are not nationalist but only want to reduce immigration.