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Spiritualism, an ambiguous term, may in philosophy and religion refer to a characteristic of any system of thought that states the existence of immaterial reality or forces imperceptible to the ordinary senses.

The term derives from the ambiguous term "spirit", which may in Judaism / Christianity / Ancient Greek philosophy refer an animating (divine) force, not identical with the more individual "soul". Extended to other religions and philosophical systems.

"Spirituality" may refer spiritual beliefs in organized religions, but may more recently often refer to spiritual beliefs not part of organized religion, such as in "New Age" spirituality. Often associated with mysticism and to seek mystical experiences.

"Spiritualism" may also more specifically refer to a movement believing that departed souls can interact with the living. Such spiritualists may seek to experience contact with the dead, usually through the assistance of a medium. The movement reached its peak growth in membership from the 1840s to the 1920s, especially in English-speaking countries.

There may be an association between unconventional philosophical / religious spiritualist views and unconventional political views, with various stated associations between (certain) unconventional spiritualists views (such as in theosophy and departed souls spiritualism) and views such as feminism.

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