Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII (25 November 1881 - 3 June 1963), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, was pope between 1958 and 1963.
Certain critics, such as some sedevacantists, dispute his status as pope and argue that he came to power in a palace coup as Giuseppe Siri, a traditional Catholic cardinal, is alleged to have been elected Pope in 1958.
He convoked the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) that started large-scale, liberal changes.
In 2003, The Guardian newspaper found a confidential communique from John to Catholic bishops, allegedly mandating confidentiality in matters of pederasty with the threat of excommunication. These allegations were later denied by Archbishop Vincent Gerard Nichols, Chairman of the Catholic Office for the Protection of Children and Vulnerable Adults. Nichols explained that the communique "is not directly concerned with child abuse at all, but with the misuse of the confessional. This has always been a most serious crime in Church law."
- Antony Barnett, public affairs editor (17 August 2003). "Vatican told bishops to cover up sex abuse". Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/aug/17/religion.childprotection. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- "Vincent Nichols statement in full". BBC News. 1 October 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/5397762.stm. Retrieved 12 September 2010.