List of Popes
While there is no completely official list of popes, the Annuario Pontificio, published every year by the Roman Curia, contains a list that is generally considered to be the most authoritative. Due to the long history of the papacy, the scholars who have compiled lists of the men holding the title, have debated over whether some figures were actual popes or antipopes. See the article on sedevacantism regarding a recent debate.
Popes of German descent
- Boniface II (530–532)
- b. c. 490 AD in Rome, Kingdom of Odoace; Ostrogoth; first Germanic pope. Changed the numbering of the years in the Julian Calendar from Ab Urbe Condita to Anno Domini.
- Stephen VIII (929–931; sometimes IX)
- c. 880 in Rome, Papal States; son of Goth or Langobard poltician Theodemundus/Theudemund
- Gregory V (996–999)
- b. c. 972 in Stainach, Duchy of Carinthia, Holy Roman Empire; first official German pope and fifth not to use his personal name (Bruno). Henceforth, this decision became tradition among future popes.
- Clement II (1046–1047)
- Damasus II (1048; 23/24 days)
- b. c. 1000 in Pildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire as Poppo von Brixen
- St Leo IX (1049–1054)
- b. 21 July 1002 in Eguisheim, Duchy of Swabia, Holy Roman Empire as Bruno Graf von Egisheim-Dagsburg; in 1054, mutual excommunications of Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius began the East–West Schism. The anathematizations were rescinded by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras in 1965.
- Victor II (1055–1057)
- b. c. 1018 Duchy of Swabia, Holy Roman Empire as Gebhard von Eichstätt, later Gebhard II von Calw-Dollnstein-Hirschberg
- Stephen IX (1057–1058; sometimes X)
- b. c. 1020 Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman Empire as Friedrich von Lothringen
- Nicholas II (1058–1061)
- b. c. 980 Château de Chevron, County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire as Gerhard von Burgund; nobleman of the Franks; in 1059 the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of pope electors in the document In nomine Domini. (Papal conclave).
- St Gregory VII (1073–1085 Abstammung umstritten, wahrscheinlich jedoch Langobarde oder Franke aus der Toskana)
- b. c. 1015 Sovana, March of Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire as Hildebrand von Sovana/Soana; of Langobard descent; initiated the Gregorian Reforms. Restricted the use of the papal title to the bishop of Rome. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Political struggle with Emperor Henry IV, who had to go to Canossa (1077).
- Hadrian VI. (1522–1523; 18 Monate)
- Theodoricus (1100–1101; 115 days)
- b. c. 1030 in Rome, Papal States as Theoderich; in opposition to Pope Paschal II; Adalbert (Albert von Sabina) and Sylvester IV (Maguinulf), both of Germanic descent, were also popes in opposition to Pope Paschal II.
- Benedict XVI (2005–2013)
- b. 16 April 1927 in Marktl, Bavaria, Germany; oldest to become pope since Clement XII (1730). Elevated the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position and promoted the use of Latin; re-introduced several disused papal garments. Authorized the creation of Anglican ordinariates (2009). First pope to renounce the papacy on his own initiative since Celestine V (1294), becoming pope emeritus. Longest-living pope on record.
Popes of Jewish descent
- St Peter (30–33 / 64–68)
- b. 1 AD in Bethsaida, Galilea, Roman Empire; born Jewish. First pope. Apostle of Jesus. According to Catholic tradition he received the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 16:18–19). Feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June. The Catholic Church recognizes him as the first Bishop of Rome appointed by Christ. Also revered as saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June. St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City is named after him.
- St Evaristus (99–105)
- b. c. 30 AD in Bethlehem, Iudaea, Roman Empire; Hellenized Jew. Said to have divided Rome into parishes, assigning a priest to each.
- St Zosimus (417–418)
- b. c. 370 AD in Messurga, Lucania et Bruttii, Roman Empire
- Innocent II (1130–1143)
- b. c. 1082 in Rome, Papal States
- Anacletus II (1130–1138)
- b. 1090 in Rome, Papal States as Pietro Pierleoni; in opposition to Innocent II; In the 11th century, Roman-Jew Baruch had become rich and powerful, converted to Christianity. Pope Leo IX personally baptized Baruch as Leo de Benedicto. His son Peter Leo (Pierleone), further established the family as a powerful Roman patrician family, which from the next generation bore his name Pierleoni.
- Callixtus III (1455–1458)
- b. 31 December 1378 in Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon; possibly of Jewish descent
- Alexander VI (1492–1503)
- b. 1 January 1431 in Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon; possibly of Jewish descent
- The List of Popes, Catholic Encyclopedia
- A Jewish Pope?, Haaretz, 2014