Leo Tolstoy (9 September 1828 – 20 November 1910), also spelled Tolstoi, in full Lev Nikolayevich, Graf (count) Tolstoy, was a Russian author, a master of realistic fiction, and one of the world’s greatest novelists. He is best known for the novels War and Peace (1865–69) and Anna Karenina (1875–77).
Especially later in his life, Tolstoy became known for moral and religious teachings. He preached nonviolence and a simplicity of life. Tolstoy had a profound influence on the development of Christian anarchist and anarcho-pacifist thought. He was excommunicated from the Russian Orthodox Church in 1901.
The "Tolstoyan movement" was a Christian anarchist pacifist movement based on his teachings. Various communities tried to implement his ideas, but failed, such as in Russia following the revolutions of 1917, where they were repressed by the non-pacifist Communists.