John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was an archbishop of Constantinople and an important Christian theologian. "Chrysostom" is a Greek surname meaning “golden-mouthed", referring to his preaching. Some of this was against Judaising Christians, Jews, and homosexuals. According to scholars, opposition to any particular view during the late 4th century was conventionally expressed in a manner utilizing the rhetorical form known as the psogos, whose literary conventions were to vilify opponents in an uncompromising manner. Thus, some his statements may have been for rhetorical effect and not meant to be taken literally.