House of Tudor

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House of Tudor
Tudor rose.png
Rose of Tudor
Country Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of France
Titles
Founder Ednyfed Fychan
Final ruler Elizabeth I of England
Founding year 1215
Dissolution 1603
Ethnicity Welsh, British

The House of Tudor was an important British royal house which shaped significantly the destiny of the British Isles during the 16th and late 15th century. Their paternal ancestors were Welsh; they descended from Ednyfed Fychan, who was Seneschal of Gwynedd in the service of Llywelyn the Great. They arose in prominence in the early 15th century, after Owen Tudor married Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France. They became involved in the English Wars of the Roses on the Lancastrian side and through conquest at the Battle of Bosworth Field where Richard III was killed, Henry VII was crowned King of England.

In total, five Tudor monarchs reigned in the Kingdom of England between 1485 and 1603. The dynasty became extinct after Elizabeth I of England died without issue; all of their claims passed to the House of Stuart who already ruled the Kingdom of Scotland. The Tudor period straddled what has come to be known as the Renaissance in European history. State consolidation happened particularly under Henry VIII; he merged the Kingdom of England and his ancestral land the Principality of Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts. Ireland was raised from a lordship into a kingdom in 1542 and the rest of the Irish petty kings, surrendered and regranted their claims, joining the nobility.

The Tudors were monarchs during a period of constantly shifting religious disposition. Henry VIII of England, a staunch Catholic who was given the title Defender of the Faith by Pope Leo X for his writings, came into conflict with Rome for reasons pertaining to marriage.[1] As a result Henry VIII founded the Church of England and with it Anglicanism, with himself as head. During the reign of his young son, Edward VI, the Anglican church was Calvinised under the influence of the court and exiled Continental theologians.[2] Queen Mary I, the wife of Philip II of Spain, briefly brought England back to the Catholic Church before Henry VIII's second daughter Elizabeth I instituted the Elizabethan settlement, solidifying Anglicanism within a paradigm of syncretic "compromise" as a via media.

Contents

Titles

England and Ireland monarchs

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor
Henry VII of England.pngHenry VII of England 22 August 148521 April 1509maternal great-great-great-grandson of Edward III of England.
Portrait of King Henry VIII.jpgHenry VIII of England 21 April 1509 28 January 1547son of Henry VII of England.
Edward VI of England.pngEdward VI of England 28 January 1547 6 July 1553son of Henry VIII of England.
Mary I of England.pngMary I of England 19 July 1553 18 November 1558sister of Edward VI of England, daughter of Henry VIII of England.
Elizabeth I of England.pngElizabeth I of England 18 November 155824 March 1603sister of Mary I of England, daughter of Henry VIII of England.

References

  1. Under pressure from Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, the Medici Pope would not allow Henry VIII the right to annul his marriage, so that he could remarry in the hopes of providing a male heir.
  2. Such as Martin Bucer, Peter Martyr Vermigli and Jan Łaski.

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