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Geopolitics is the study of the effects of geography on politics and international relations. The word was coined by the Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén in 1900.

An early influence was the German Friedrich Ratzel, notably associated with the term Lebensraum and dubious politically correct descriptions of the term, causing some guilt by association for geopolitics. Geopolitics may also be associated with "realist" views on international relations, and be considered less politically correct by supporters of liberal views and globalization. Leftist Wikipedia prominently mention the claim that geopolitics, as used in the early-twentieth-century, is a pseudoscience. Recently, there has appeared "critical geopolitics", a branch of critical theory.

"Political geography" is an etymologically similar term, but often with wider senses.

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