Carleton Coon

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C. S. Coon

Carleton Stevens Coon, (June 23, 1904June 3, 1981) was a American physical anthropologist and race realist best remembered for his scientific works on race. He fought a losing battle against the rise of Boasian anthropology and race denialism and is consequently often negatively misrepresented by the victors now dominating American anthropology.

Coon's five races of man

Before the Pleistocene
After the Pleistocene
  Caucasoid race
  Congoid race
  Capoid race
  Mongoloid race
  Australoid race

Published works on race


  • Tribes of the Rif. (1931). Harvard African Studies.
  • The Races of Europe (1939). Macmillan.
  • Principles in Anthropology. (1942, with E. D. Chapple). New York: Henry Holt and Company.
  • A Reader in General Anthropology. (1948). New York: Henry Holt and Company.
  • Races: A Study of the Problems of Race Formation in Man. (1950, with Stanley M. Garn and Joseph B. Birdsell). Charles C Thomas.
  • Caravan: the Story of the Middle East. (1951, 2nd ed. 1958, 4th ed. 1976). New York: Henry Holt and Company.
  • The Story of Man. (1954, 2nd ed. 1962, printed as The History of Man, 3rd ed. 1969). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • The Seven Caves: Archaeological Explorations in the Middle. (1957). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • The Origin of Races. (1962, 9th reprint. 1973). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Anthropology A to Z. (1963, with Edward E. Hunt Jr., based on the text by Gerhard Heberer).
  • The Living Races of Man. (1965, with Edward E. Hunt Jr., 9th reprint. 1974).
  • The Hunting Peoples. (1971). Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Adventures and Discoveries: The Autobiography of Carleton S. Coon. (1981). Prentice-Hall.
  • Racial Adaptations (1982, foreword by William W. Howells). Nelson-Hall.


  • Coon, C. S. (1935). "People of the Rif". Nat. Hist. 35(2). pp. 92-106.
  • Coon, C. S., Taylor, G. (1941). "Races of the world; a discussion of recent classifications". Hum. Biol. 13. pp. 390-97.
  • Coon, C. S., Johnson, P. (1946). "Racial contexts of prehistory". Antiquity. 20. pp. 154-57.
  • Coon, C. S., Ehrich, R. W. (1947). "Occipital flattening among the Dinarics". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 6(2). pp. 181-86.
  • Coon, C. S. (1949). "The Eridu crania, a preliminary report". Sumer. 5. pp. 103—104.
  • Coon, C. S. (1950). "Human races in relation to environment and culture". In: Origin and Evolution of Man. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 5. pp. 247-58.
  • Coon, C. S. (1953). "Climate and race". In: Climate Change, ed. H. Shapley, pp. 13—34.
  • Coon, C. S., Garn, S. M. (1955). "On the Number of Races of Mankind". American Anthropologist. 57. 5. 1955. pp. 996-1001.
  • Coon, C. S. (1955). "Some Problems of Human Variability and Natural Selection in Climate and Culture". The American Naturalist. 89. No. 848. pp. 257-279.
  • Coon, C. S. (1957). "What is race?". Atlantic Monthly. 200(4). pp. 103-108.
  • Coon, C. S. (1958). "Faces of Asia". Pa. Univ. Mus. Bull. 22. pp. 1-48.
  • Coon, C. S. (1959). "Race and Ecology in Man". Cold Spring Harbour Symposia on Quantitative Biology. 24. pp. 153-9.
  • Coon, C. S. (1961). "Man against the cold". Nat. Hist. 70(l). pp. 56-69.
  • Coon, C. S. (1962). "New findings on the origin of races". Harper's Magazine. 225(1351). pp. 66—68; 71-74.
  • Coon, C. S. (1966). "The Taxonomy of Human Variation". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 134(2). pp. 516-523.
  • Coon, C. S. (1978). "L'adaptation humaine". La Recherche. 89(9). pp. 438-48.


  • "A study of the fundamental racial and cultural characteristics of the Berbers of North Africa as exemplified by the Riffians". (1928). Ph.D. diss., Harvard University.
  • The Mountains of Giants: A racial and cultural study of the North Albanian Mountain Ghegs. (1950). Peabody Mus. Pap. 23(3).
  • "Populations, Human". In: Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 15th ed., vol. 14, pp. 839—48. Chicago: Encyclopedia Brittanica.