Black Hebrew Israelites
Black Hebrew Israelites (also called Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, and Hebrew Israelites) are groups of Black Americans who believe that they are descendants of the ancient Israelites. Black Hebrews adhere in varying degrees to the religious beliefs and practices of both Christianity and Judaism. With the exception of a small number of individuals who have formally converted to Judaism, they are not recognized as Jews by the greater Jewish community. Many choose to identify themselves as Hebrew Israelites or Black Hebrews rather than Jews in order to indicate their claimed historic connections.
Such groups were founded in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the mid-1980s, the number of Black Hebrews in the United States was estimated between 25,000 and 40,000.
Rastafarianism also claims descent from the ancient Israelites, but is often not described as Black Hebrew Israelite.