Wesley Critz George
Wesley Critz George also W. C. George (August 28, 1888 - October 29, 1982) was professor of histology and embryology at the University of North Carolina Medical School. He was an international authority on the genetics of race. George became an activist against racial integration after the 1954 Brown decision and supported segregationist groups like the Patriots of North Carolina, Inc. In 1961 he published Race, Heredity, and Civilization. A year later the Governor of Alabama, John Patterson, commissioned George to write The Biology of the Race Problem to be financed with $3,000 of Alabama state funds. Patterson later withdraw the offer and George published the book on his own.
George argued for biological race realism, and saved special venom for Frank Boas and his disciples. George used some of the same materials on intelligence tests that Arthur Jensen and Charles Murray among others later used as evidence of lower black average intelligence.
Materials from 1944, and preserved at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, document George's theories concerning the genetic basis of racial differences in average intelligence. There are also letters documenting George's disputes with religious leaders, particularly at the Chapel of the Cross in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, about racial mixing in churches, and George's disapproval of the liberal tendencies of university president Frank Porter Graham and sociologist Howard W. Odum. After the 1954 Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education decision, George's fight against school integration escalated, reaching its height in 1955 - 1957, when George was active in the Patriots of North Carolina and then in the North Carolina Defenders of States' Rights which picked up the anti-integration banner after the Patriots' demise.
George was also interested in race policies in other nations, specifically in Rhodesia and South Africa. Among his correspondents in the North Carolina archive are Carleton S. Coon, James P. Dees, Henry E. Garrett, Luther Hodges, R. Carter Pittman, Carleton Putnam, Clayton Rand, and Archibald Roosevelt. The archive also contains a considerable number of letters and other items that George received from individuals and organizations that also viewed race differences in average intelligence to be partly genetic.
W. C. George on race mixing
- Briefly, my position is this: Bringing the two sexes of the two races together in more intimate social and semi social relations, as in schools, during childhood and young adulthood promotes the illicit and legitimate crossing of blood. This in the course of time will result in the destruction of the white and colored races and the substitution of a mulatto race. Reproduction in humans follows the laws of heredity that are known for animals and for humans. Consequently, the resulting blend of races would be a blend of the physical, intellectual and creative qualities of the two races. That would be socially bad because: All the evidence that we have indicates that the negro races [are] on the average definitely below the white races in intellectual ability and creativeness. ... We can't afford to take a chance on lowering the quality of our race and destroying our civilization.
- W.C. George Papers, 1904-1971
- American National Biography Online, Wesley Critz George
- Portrait of Wesley Critz George
- G. Lewis, "'Scientific Certainty': Wesley Critz George, Racial Science and Organised White Resistance in North Carolina, 1954–1962", Journal of American Studies, 2004.
- S. Niven, "Wesley Critz George: Scientist and Segregationist", North Carolina Literary Review, 1998
- The Histology of the Blood of some Bermuda Ascidians (1930)
- The Role of Blood Cells in Excretion in Ascidians (1936)
- A Comparative Study of the Blood of the Tunicates (1939)
- A Presomit Human Embryo with Chorda Canal and Prochordal Plate (1942)
- The Responsibility of Scientists in this Era (1952)
- The Race Problem from the Standpoint of One who is Concerned about the Evils of Miscegenation published by American States Rights Association (1955)
- Race, Heredity, and Civilisation: Human Progress and the Race Problem published by Britons Publishing Society, London (1961)
- The Biology of the Race Problem 87 pages (1962)
- Race Problems and Human Progress: Three Timely Essays (1967)