The Soviet–Afghan War (1979 - 1989, also known as the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, occurred after a Communist coup (and the usual Red Terror) in Afghanistan in 1978, followed by insurgencies and internal Communist conflicts, which caused a 1979 Soviet military invasion and a new pro-Soviet coup. For the next decade, Muslim guerillas supported by Muslim and Western countries fought the Communists. In association with the fall of Communism, the Soviet forces left Afghanistan in 1989 and the Communist regime was overthrown in 1992.
As many as 2 million civilians were killed. The war, seen as a victory for Islamism, contributed to the ongoing Islamization and was an origin for various Islamist terrorist organizations.