Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX (13 May 1792 - 7 February 1878), original name Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was pope between 1846 and 1878, the longest in history. He increasingly opposed various liberal trends. In 1870, he lost the Papal States to Italy. Other notable events included the First Vatican Council (1869–70), which contributed to a centralization of the Catholic Church to the Vatican, while also stating the Pope's absolute doctrinal authority.