Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 - June 2, 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist who played a large role in the history and unification of Italy, such as through his conquest of Sicily and Naples in 1860.
Garibaldi's actions caused controversies also outside Italy. He was viewed negatively by many Catholics, for reasons such as Garibaldi being a Freemason, Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy, his anti-Catholicism, and his goal to include the territory of the Papal States in a unified Italy. Conversely, for example, there were major anti-Catholic riots in his name across Britain in 1862, with Irish Catholics in turn fighting back.
One historian of the American Civil War has written that the distraction created by Garibaldi's military expeditions, followed by his unequivocal endorsement of the Union cause, was as important as Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation in preserving British and French neutrality in the American conflict, thus significantly aiding the Northern cause.
- Encyclopedia Britannica: Giuseppe Garibaldi
- Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition: Giuseppe Garibaldi
- Encyclopedia.com: Giuseppe Garibaldi
- Donald M. MacRaild (2010). The Irish Diaspora in Britain, 1750-1939. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 178–79.
- Don H. Doyle, The Cause of All Nations: An International History of the American Civil War (New York: Basic Books, 2015), 226-33.