English Civil War
The English Civil War (1641–1651) was a series of political machinations and finally armed conflicts between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Although it commenced as purely English, it eventually spread to Scotland and then Ireland.
The first (1642–46) and second (1648–49) civil wars were between the loyal supporters of King Charles I against the traitors of the Long Parliament, while the third war (1649–51) saw fighting between the Royalists of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil Wars finally ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on September 3, 1651.
The defeat of the King's forces led to the illegal trial and subsequent execution of the King in Westminster Palace, the exile of his son, Charles II (following the Battle of Worcester in which he fought), and replacement of the British monarchies with first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–53), and then with a Protectorate (1653–59), under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended, with the victors also consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, some argue, the Civil War established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although this concept was only really established with the Glorious Revolution in 1688.
- Oliver Cromwell - On aspects such as associations with Jewish interests.