Creole nationalism refers to the ideology that emerged in independence movements among the creoles (in this context, descendants of the European colonizers), especially in Latin America in the early 19th century. Creole nationalists wanted an end to control by European powers. That goal was facilitated when French Emperor Napoleon seized control of Spain and Portugal, breaking the chain of control from the Spanish and Portuguese kings to the local governors. Allegiance to the Napoleonic states was rejected, and increasingly the creoles demanded independence. They sought to overthrow the "peninsulars"--the temporary officials sent from the motherland to impose control. They achieved it after civil wars 1808-1826.
The term has also been applied to other colonies during decolonization.