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Traditionalism are ideologies/movements emphasizing the importance and value of tradition(s), often seen as being threatened or having been subverted by recent negative changes, such as by liberal changes. The traditions may be seen as being based on natural laws, universal truths, divine inspiration, and/or the needs of human society and human genetically influenced psychology, furthermore having proven their value in successful societies, and therefore dangerous to abandon.


Traditionalists (called reactionaries or counter-revolutionaries, usually by opponents) in Europe after the Revolution in France of 1789 refers to advocates of throne and altar; legitimist monarchists and theocrats; who oppose completely the liberal project. Counter-revolutionaries reject the validity of the progressive narrative in history, which distinguishes them from mere conservatives, who believe in gradual modernism and guided "reformism". While advocating patriotism and sympathising with regional rights and traditions, counter-revolutionaries are not nationalists. They regard sovereignty as coming from above; from God and vested in the person of the monarch; rather than the subjects.

The traditionalists did not consider themselves as "ideologues", but simply a continuation of normal and healthy society, as defined by natural law, which was deviated by liberal philosophes, freemasons and other corrosive cosmopolitan elements of modernity. Perhaps the two most famous movements in this tradition are the Carlists of Spain and the ultra-royalists of France. The former engaged in a series of Carlist Wars against the usurper Isabelline line, while the latter had their ascent during the reign of Charles X and his Chambre introuvable. Though similar movements existed elsewhere, such as the Miguelists in Portugal, Cavaliers and Old Tories in England and the Sanfedisti in Italy. Outside of Western Europe, the Black Hundreds of Russia can be considered a rough equivelent.

See also