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The Holocene is the present geological epoch. It is also called the Recent epoch. It is the second epoch in the Quaternary period.

The Holocene marks the end of the previous series of ice ages in the Pleistocene. It started about 11,700 years ago when the temperatures rose quickly from the previous level.

During the early Holocene, there were many extinctions amongst larger mammals. This is attributed to a combination of human hunting and climate change.[1][2][3]


  1. Martin P.S. and Klein R.G. eds 1984. Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution. Arizona, Tucson AZ.
  2. Roberts, Neil 1998. The Holocene: an environmental history. 2nd ed, Blackwell, Malden, MA. ISBN 0-631-18637-9
  3. Mackay A.W. Battarbee R.W. Birks H.J.B. et al. eds 2003. Global change in the Holocene. Arnold, London. ISBN 0-340-76223-3
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