Guy Fawkes (1570 - 1606) was an English convert to Catholicism and the best-known participant in the Gunpowder Plot, which planned to blow up the palace at Westminster during the state opening of Parliament, while James I, many supporters, and many others met within. James I was planned to be replaced by a Catholic monarch.
The plot was discovered. Fawkes was tortured, revealed his co-conspirators, and killed himself immediately before he was to be hanged, drawn and quartered.
The failure of the plot is commemorated in Britain on November 5 as Guy Fawkes Night.