White people in Latin America

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White Latin American
BlancoWhiteLatinoLatinAmericanoAmerican.jpg
1st row: Jose Marti[1] • Elena Poniatowska[2] • Don Francisco[3] • Sofía Mulánovich[4] • Oscar Cox[5]

2nd row: Juana de Ibarbourou[6] • Óscar Berger Perdomo[7] • Gisele Bundchen[8] • Jamil Mahuad Witt[9] • Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda[10]

3rd row: Hernán Büchi Buc • Shakira[11] • Francisco Morazán[12] • Eva Peron[13] • Mario Benedetti[14]

4th row: Dolores del Río[15] • Álvaro García Linera • Gabriela Sabatini[16] • Leon de Greiff[17] • Juana Inés de la Cruz[18]

5th row: Kaká[19] • Maria Montez[20] • Ángel Rivero Méndez[21] • Stefania Fernandez[22] • Manuel Belgrano[23]
Total population
White People
181 million – 203 million[24][25]
36% – 37% of Latin American population.
Regions with significant populations
 Brazil 92.0 M[26]
 Argentina 34.6 M[25]
 Mexico 10 M[27] or 17 M[25]
 Chile 8.8 M[25]
 Colombia 8.8 M[28] or 11M[29]
 Cuba 7.2 M[30]
 Venezuela 5.6 M[31]
 Peru 4.4 M[28]
 Costa Rica 3.5 M[25]
 Puerto Rico 3.2 M[28]
 Uruguay 3.1 M[28]
 Dominican Republic 1.5 M[28]
 Bolivia 1.4 M[28]
 Ecuador 1.4 M[32]
 Paraguay 1.3 M[25]
 Nicaragua 1 M[28]
All other areas 1.1 M[28]
Languages
Portuguese, Spanish, and other languages.[33]
Religion
Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestants); and other religions[34]

White Latin Americans[35] are the white population of Latin America. They are the descendants of 15th–19th century colonial-era settlers and of post-independence immigrants who came principally in the late decades of the nineteenth and early decades of the twentieth centuries.[36] The Southern Cone is the area with the larger proportion of whites.

The original settlers were mostly Spanish and Portuguese. Post-independence, Italians have led numerically among the millions of immigrants. The Spaniards and Portuguese round out the top three. Notably large immigration occurred as well by Germans, Basques, Polish, Ukrainians, Dutch, Swiss, Croats, and other Europeans.[36] In at least some countries, the white population also includes Middle Easterners/Southwest Asians. The majority are Christian Arabs of Lebanese and Syrian origin, but there are also Armenians and others.[37]

Composing about 36.1%[25] of the population as of 2000, White Latin Americans constitute the largest racial-ethnic group in the region.[24] According to a Survey conducted by Cohesión Social in Latin America, in which a sample of 10,000 people from 7 different countries were inquired, a 34% of the interviewée identified themselves as "blancos" (Whites).[38]

History

More than a million Spaniards and Portuguese settled in their American colonies during the colonial period.[39] In the case of the Portuguese in Brazil, the process was slow between 1500 and 1640, when only some 100.000 Lusitans establishee in the new colony, but it notably increased during the period 1701-1760, in which 600.000 Portuguese form the metropoli arrived. Brazilian writer Renato Pinto Venâncio estimated -based on the many studies on the topic- that some 724.000 Portuguese arrived in Brazilian territory through the whole colonial period.[40]

Latin America.

In the particular case of Spaniards, it seems to be a fact -though estimates vary- that immigration of conquistadores and colonists towards the New World was scanty during all the colonial period, which would explain the admixture (mestizaje) that took place in this region. Some estimates state that less than 200,000 Spaniards arrived in the Americas during the period 1509-1790.[41] On the other hand, M. Mönier assessed that 437,669 Peninsulares settled in the Spanish American possessions between 1506 and 1650.[42] It is possible that some "undesirable" groups who were persecuted in Spain by the time -Sefardic Jews, Moors, homosexuals, heretics, witches, etc.- had escaped to the New World as "stowaways".[39] Mexico and Peru became the main destinations of Spanish colonists during the 16th century.

After the period of the Wars of Independence, the elites of most of the countries in the region mistakenly concluded that the cause of their underdevelopment was their populations being mostly Amerindian, Mestizo or Mulatto,[39] so a major process of "Whitening" was required, or at least desireable.[43][44] Then, most Latin American countries implemented policies to promote and incentivate European immigration, and some were quite successful at it, especially Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. The amount of European immigrants arrived from the late 19th century and the early 20th century far surpassed the figures of original colonists. Numbers vary according to the period taken into account, but it is evident that, of a total 12 million immigrants arrived in South America,[36] Argentina received 6.4 million and Brazil welcomed 4.4 million immigrants between 1821 and 1932.[45]

Historical demographic growth

The following chart displays estimates (in thousands) of White, Black/Mulatto, Amerindian and Mestizo population of the subcontinent from the 17th to the 20th centuries. The figures shown for the years between 1650 and 1980 are taken from The Cry of My People. Out of Captivity in Latin America, written by Esther and Mortimer Arias. New York Friendship Press, 1980. Pages 17 and 18.[46] Data belonging to year 2000 are taken from Lizcano's work.[25] Percentages are provided by the editor.

Year White Black Amerindian Mestizo Total
1650 138 67 12,000 670 12,875
Percentages 1.1% 0.5% 93.2% 5.2% 100%
1825 4,350 4,100 8,000 6,200 22,650
Percentages 19.2% 18.1% 35.3% 27.3% 100%
1950 72,000 13,729 14,000 61,000 160,729
Percentages 44.8% 8.5% 8.7% 37.9% 100%
1980 150,000 27,000 30,000 140,000 347,000
Percentages 43.2% 7.7% 8.6% 40.3% 100%
2000 181,296 119,055 46,434 152,380 502,784
Percentages 36.1% 23.6% 9.2% 30.3% 100%

Admixture

Since the European colonization, the evolution of Latin America's population is embedded in a long and widespread history of intermixing, so that many White Latin Americans have Native American and/or sub-Saharan African and/or, rarely, East Asian ancestry. Under the casta system of colonial Latin America, a person of mixed European/Native American ancestry, or Mestizo ancestry, would legally and automatically regain their limpieza de sangre (literally "purity of blood") and be classified as criollo with others in that category (a designation denoting "pure" Spaniards born in the Americas), if they were of one-eighth or less Native American ancestry. These would be the offspring of a castizo (1/4 Native American and 3/4 Spanish) with a Spaniard or a criollo (who may himself have been mixed).[47]

In practice, many castizos did themselves also subversively purchase their Whiteness all over Latin America, for a steep price,[48] with relevant "probanzas de limpieza de sangre" records altered, consolidating themselves within the lawfully white population. Additionally, at least in the parts of Latin America under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish territory in Mexico, Central America (except Panama), the Caribbean, Florida, and the present Southwestern United States; it later included the Louisiana region, to the Canadian border) officials in the late 16th century did actually decide "to grant limpieza certification to those who had no more than a fourth of native ancestry (called castizos)."[47]

Populations

In terms of absolute numbers, the largest White population in Latin America is found in Brazil, with 92 million whites out of 190 million total Brazilians, or 48.4% of the total population.[26] Argentina has the second largest white population, and Mexico has the third largest.[25] In terms of percentage of the total population, Uruguay has the largest white population, with up to 88% of the country self-identified as White. Depending on the definition of "Latin America", the smallest White population resides either in Honduras, with only 1% White, approximately 75,000 people, or in Haiti. Guatemala's census groups both Whites and Mestizos (people of mixed White and Native American ancestry) in one category, so the exact percentage of White Guatemalans is undetermined.[24]

Country % local Population
(millions)
Brazil Brazil 48.4[26] 92
Argentina Argentina 86.4[49] 34
Mexico Mexico 9[50] or 15[25] 10 - 17
Colombia Colombia 20[51] 8.9
Chile Chile 52.7[25] 8.8
Cuba Cuba 56.4[30] 7.2
Venezuela Venezuela 20[31] 5.6
Peru Peru 15[52] 4.4
Costa Rica Costa Rica 82[25] 3.8
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 76.2[53] 3.1
Uruguay Uruguay 88[54] 3
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 16[55] 1.6
Bolivia Bolivia 15[56] 1.4
Ecuador Ecuador 10.4[32] 1.4
Paraguay Paraguay 20[25] 1.3
Nicaragua Nicaragua 17[57] 1

Central America

Costa Rica

In Costa Rica the estimates of White people slightly vary between 77%[58] and 82%,[25] or about 3.1 - 3.5 million people. Other sources estimate that White Costa Ricans -who simply self identified as "Costa Ricans"- and other European groups comprise a 78.75%[59] of Costa Rica's population, or about 3,652,000 people. A combined ratio of 94% is given for the White and Mestizo populations by the CIA World Factbook.[60] Costa Rican European ancestry is mostly Spanish, though there are significant numbers of Costa Ricans descended from Italian, Greek, German, English, Dutch, French, Irish, Portuguese, Lebanese, and Polish families.

El Salvador

Of the total Salvadoran population, 12%, or 545,000, is white.[61] They are mostly of Spanish descent, Dutch, Norwegian, Australian, Georgian, Portuguese, Polish, Romanian, Hungarian, Albanian, Croatian, Greek, Russian, Swedish, Belgian, Austrian, English, French, Swiss, German, Irish, Italian Canadian, American, Palestinian ancestry, and continuing with the arrival of World War II Central European refugees. The majority of the white Salvadorans are in the national capital San Salvador, and in Chalatenango, Northern San Miguel, Northern La Union, and Santa Ana, Morazan, and Cabanas. El Salvador's Ex-President Tony Saca is of Palestinian descent, as was the leader of the left-wing opposition party (the FMLN) during his presidency - Schafik Handal. [citation needed]

Guatemala

The exact percentage of the white Guatemalan population is not known because the Guatemalan census combines mestizos and whites in one category, where they make up a combined total of 59.4%.[24] Whites are mostly of Spanish descent, but there are also those of German, English, Italian, Scandinavian, and American descent.[citation needed]

Some other sources place the percentage of whites at 5.1%, or about 649,000 people.[citation needed]

Honduras

Honduras contains perhaps the smallest percentage of whites in Latin America, with only 1% classified in this group, or up to 75,000 to 150,000 of the total population.[62] Of these, the majority are people of Spanish descent. A white population is found in the city of San Pedro Sula, especially descendants of Palestinians, and in the Bay Islands Department which descends from Caymanian settlers with English, Irish, Scottish, French, German, Italian and Greek descent.[citation needed]

Nicaragua

Enrique Bolaños, 82nd President of Nicaragua. He is of Spanish and German heritage.[63]

White Nicaraguans make up 17%, just over 1 million, of the Nicaraguan population.[57] The majority of White Nicaraguans are of Spanish, German, Italian, Portuguese, Belgian and French ancestry. In the 1800s Nicaragua experienced several waves of immigration, primarily from Europe. In particular, families from Germany, Italy, Spain, France and Belgium immigrated to Nicaragua, mostly to the departments in the Central and Pacific region. As a result, the Northern cities of Estelí, Jinotega and Matagalpa have significant fourth generation Germans. They established many agricultural businesses such as coffee and sugar cane plantations, and also newspapers, hotels and banks.

Also present is a small Middle Eastern-Nicaraguan community of Syrians, Armenians, Palestinian Nicaraguans, and Lebanese Nicaraguans with a total population of about 30,000.

Panama

White Panamanians form 10%,[64] with the Spanish being the majority. Other ancestries includes Dutch, English, French, German, Irish, Greek, Italian, Lebanese, Portuguese and Russian.

North America

Mexico

Main articles: White Mexican and Mexican people

White Mexicans are an estimated 9%, 15%, or about 17% of Mexico's population, i.e. around 10, 17, or 19 million people.[25][27][66] The majority of them are of Spanish descent. However, many other non-Iberian immigrants (mostly French) also arrived during the Second Mexican Empire in the 1860s. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, immigrants from Italy, Germany, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Lebanon and Palestine also made Mexico their home.[67][68] In the 20th century, White Americans, Canadians, Greeks, Romanians, Portuguese, Armenians, Poles, Russians, and immigrants from other Eastern European countries,[68] along with many Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil War, also settled in Mexico.[69]

Elena Poniatowska

The northern regions of Mexico, such as the states of Sonora, Chihuahua and Nuevo Leon, and particularly the city of Monterrey, hold the greatest European genetic admixture, with roughly 50-61% European admixture among the regional population.[70] The white population of central Mexico is ethnically more diverse, as there are large numbers of non-Iberian European and Middle Eastern ethnic groups (mostly Italians, French and Lebanese).[citation needed]

Caribbean

Cuba

Main article: Cubans
* Sissi is a Cuban model and presenter.
* Jose Marti was a Cuban poet, writer, nationalist leader.

White Cubans make up about 70%[30][71] of the total Cuban population, with the majority being of diverse Spanish descent. However, after the mass exodus resulting from Cuba becoming a Soviet satellite in 1959, the number of white Cubans actually residing in Cuba diminished. Today various records claiming the percentage of whites in Cuba are conflicting and uncertain; some reports (usually coming from Cuba) still report a less, but similar, pre-1959 number of 65% and others (usually from outside observers) report a 40-45%. Despite most white Cubans being of Spanish descent, many others are of French, Portuguese, German, Italian, and Russian descent.[72] During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century, large waves of Canarians, Catalans, Andalusians, Castilians, and Galicians emigrated to Cuba. Also, one significant ethnic influx is derived from various Middle Eastern nations. Given Cuba's thriving economic during its capitalistic era, between 1901 and 1958, more than a million Spaniards arrived to Cuba from Spain; many of these and their descendants left after Castro's communist regime took power.[citation needed]

Dominican Republic

María Montez actress of Spanish descent.[73][74]

White Dominicans represent 16% of the total population,[55] with the vast majority being of Spanish descent. Notable other ancestries includes French, Italian, Lebanese, German, and Portuguese.[75][76][77] Over half of all Dominicans have European ancestry along with African.

The government of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo made a point of increasing the white population, or "whitening" the racial composition of the country by rejecting black immigrants from Haiti and the local blacks as foreigners.[78] The country German minority is the largest in all of the Caribbean.[79]

Some notable White Dominicans include Juan Luis Guerra, 2003 Miss Universe Amelia Vega, Miss Dominican Republic 2010 Eva Arias, world known fashion designer Oscar De La Renta, singer/tv presenter Charytín Goyco, former Dominican president Hipólito Mejía and painter Guillo Pérez among others.[citation needed]

Haiti

The Mulatto and the White population of Haiti make up about 5%.[80] Most of the white Haitians are descendants of French settlers, although most French left following the Haitian Revolution of 1791–1804, which resulted in Saint-Domingue's independence as the Republic of Haiti. The white community had numbered 32,000 in 1789.[81] There are also white Haitians that are descendants of Danes, Germans, Italians, Lebanese, Poles, Portuguese, Russians, and Syrians. The country has also small numbers of Haitians of Spanish descent, who are the descendants of the first settlers on the whole of Hispaniola before French rule came to Haiti.

Martinique

Note: Many definitions of Latin America do not include Martinique

White people in Martinique represent 5% of the population, as Martinique is an overseas French department, most whites are French.[82]

Puerto Rico

* Ángel Rivero was a soldier.[83]


* Ricky Martin is a pop singer.[84]

White Puerto Ricans of European, mostly Spanish descent, are said to comprise the majority. (See: Spanish immigration to Puerto Rico). In the year 1899, one year after the U.S invaded and took control of the island, 61.8% of people identified as White. For the first time in fifty years, the 2000 United States Census asked people to define their race. One hundred years later, the total has risen to 80.5% (3,064,862), less than one percent more than reported in 1950.[85]

From the beginning of the twentieth century American observers remarked on the "surprising preponderance of the white race" on the island. One travel writer called Puerto Rico "the whitest of the Antilles". In a widely distributed piece, a geologist, wrote that the island was "notable among the West Indian group for the reason that its preponderant population is of the white race." In a more academic book he reiterated that "Porto Rico, at least, has not become Africanized.[86]

During the 19th century, hundreds of Corsican, French, Middle Eastern, and Portuguese families, along with large numbers of immigrants from Spain (mainly from Catalonia, Asturias, Galicia, the Balearic Islands, Andalusia, and the Canary Islands) and numerous Spanish loyalists from Spain's former colonies in South America, arrived in Puerto Rico. Other settlers have included Irish, Scots, Germans, Italians, and thousands others who were granted land from Spain during the Real Cedula de Gracias de 1815 (Royal Decree of Graces of 1815), which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land. After the United States took possession of Puerto Rico after the Spanish-American War, an influx of White Americans began settling in Puerto Rico, continuing to the present day. Spanish refugees arrived in Puerto Rico during Francisco Franco’s rule in Spain.

Saint Barthélemy

Note: Many definitions of Latin America do not include Saint Barthélemy

Most of the population are French-speaking descendants of the first settlers from Normandy and Brittany.[87]

South America

Argentina

Main article: White Argentine
Beauty queen of the Italian community in the Fiesta del Inmigrante in Oberá, Misiones. It is estimated that more than 20 million Argentines -about 52%- have at least one Italian forefather. [88]

Argentina's National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INDEC) does not conduct ethnic/racial censuses, so no official data exist on the precise amount or percentage of White Argentines today. Nevertheless, most of the sources consulted provide estimates for the White Euro-descended population in the country of 83.2%[89] [90] , an 85%[25] [91], or even up to 86.4%[92] of the total population. These percentages would rise up to 86.1%, 87.8% or 89.7% if the Non-European Caucasian groups (Jews and Arabs) are also counted. Summing up, These percentages would result in an estimated population of 34-36 million White people in Argentina. The figure of 97%[93] given by the CIA Factbook seems to be exaggerated; either it counts both White and Mestizo population all together,[91] or it is the result of the successful campaign implemented by Argentina's ruling elite in the early 20th century to present "a White country".[94] In the survey conducted by Cohesión Social mentioned in the introduction, 63% of the Argentinians interviewed identified themselves as "Whites".[38] Other articles state that 75% - 80% of Argentina's population would be White.[95]

White Argentines may live in any part of the country, but their concentration is greater especially in the central-eastern region called Pampas, the southern region called Patagonia, and in the central-western region called Cuyo.Their concentration is smaller in the north-eastern region called Litoral and much lesser in the north-western provinces of Salta, Jujuy, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja and Santiago del Estero, This is because these provinces were the most densely populated region of the country (mainly by Amerindian and Mestizo people) before the immigratory wave of 1857-1940, and it was the area where the European newcomers settled the least. [94][95] [96]During the last decades, due to internal migration from these northern provinces, and due to immigration especially from Bolivia, Perú and Paraguay, the percentage of White Argentines in certain areas of the Greater Buenos Aires, and the provinces of Salta and Jujuy has significantly decreased as well.[97][95]

General Manuel Belgrano (1770-1820), creator of the Argentine flag; his father was born in Liguria, and his mother was a criolla from Santiago del Estero.
Gabriel Batistuta

White population residing in Argentina is mostly descendant of immigrants arrived from Europe and the Middle East between the late 19th Century and the early 20th Century, and in smaller proportion from Spaniards of the colonial period. Out of the total estimation of de 437,669 Spaniards settled in the American Spanish colonies during the period 1506 - 1650 by M. Möner, Peter Muschamp Boyd-Bowman estimated that a figure between 10,500 and 13,125 Peninsulares established in the Río de la Plata region.[41] The colonial censuses conducted after the creation of the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata showed that the proportion of Spaniards and Criollos was very significant in the cities and surrounding countryside, but not so much in the rural areas. The 1778 Census ordered by viceroy Juan José de Vértiz in Buenos Aires revealed that, of a total population of 37,130 inhabitants (including both city and surrounding countryside), the Spaniards and Criollos numbered 25,451, or 68.55% of the total. Another census carried out in the Corregimiento de Cuyo in 1777 showed that the Spaniards and Criollos numbered 4,491 (or 51.24%) out of a population of 8,765 inhabitants. In Córdoba (city and countryside) the Spanish/Criollo people comprised a 39.36% (about 14,170) of 36,000 inhabitants.[98]

Bartolomé Mitre (1821-1906), President of Argentina (1862-1868); his family had Greek ancestry, originally surnamed Mitropoulos.[99]

In 1822, a census was conducted in the city of Buenos Aires; it showed that the city had then 55,416 inhabitants, of which 40,000 were White (about 72.2%). Of this total of Whites, a 90% were Criollos, a 5% were Spaniards, and the other 5% were from other European nations.[100] This figure differs substantially with an estimate by Italo-Argentine sociologist José Ingenieros, which stated that in 1826 the Argentine territory was populated by 630,000 people, of whom only 13,000 were White; if this figures were correct, Whites comprised a mere 1.66% of the total.[101] According to historian John W. White's estimate, those percentages had barely changed by 1852; out of a total 785,000 inhabitants, a 22,000 were White -a 2,8%- divided in 15,000 Criollos and 7,000 Europeans.[102]

In February 1856, the municipal government of Baradero granted lands for the settlement of ten Swiss families in an agricultural colony near that town. Later that year, another colony was founded by Swiss immigrants in Esperanza, Santa Fe. During the 1860s and 1870s, Presidents Bartolomé Mitre, Domingo Sarmiento and Nicolás Avellaneda implemented policies that encouraged massive European immigration. In 1876, during Avellaneda's presidential period, the Congress voted and sanctioned the new Law 817 of Immigration and Colonization. During the following decades, and until the mid-twentieth century, waves of European settlers came to Argentina.

Boer colonists in a farm near Pastos Blancos, Chubut. Between 1902 and 1907, some 600 Boers/ Afrikaners from South Africa settled in Argentina.[103][104]

Data provided by Argentina’s Dirección Nacional de Migraciones (National Bureau of Immigration) states that the country received a total 6,611,000 European and Middle Eastern immigrants during the period 1857-1940.[105] The main immigrant group were the 2,970,000 Italians arrived in the period (44.9% of the total); initially they came from Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, and later from Campania, Calabria and Sicily.[106] The second group in importance were the Spaniards, some 2,080,000 (31.4% of the total); They weere mostly Galicians and Basques, but also Asturians, Cantabrians, Catalonians and Andalucians). In smaller but significant numbers arrived Franchmen from Occitania (239,000, 3.6% of the total) and Polish (180,000 – 2.7%). From the Russian Empire came some 177,000 people (2.6%); they were not only ethnic Russians, but also Ukrainians, Belarussians, Volga Germans, Lithuanians, etc. From the Ottoman Empire the contributors were mainly Armenians and Arabs (mostly from Lebanon and Syria), some 174,000 in all (2.6%). Very closely in numbers come the immigrants from the German Empire, some 152,000 (2.2%). From the Austro-Hungarian Empire came 111,000 people (1.6%), among them Austríans, Hungarians, Croatians, Bosniaks, Serbs, rutenos y montenegrinos. Among the 75,000 British immigrants there were many people from England and Wales, but mosto f them were Irish people who were escaping the Potato famine or the British rule. Other minor groups were the Portuguese (65,000), the Slavics from ex-Yugoslavia (48,000), the Suiss (44,000), the Belgians (26,000), the Danes (18,000), the White Americans (12.000), the Dutch (10,000), and the Swedish (7,000). Even colonishts from Australia, and Boers from South Africa can be found in the Argentine immigration records.

In the 1910s, when the immigration rate reached its peak, more than 30% of Argentina’s population was born in Europe, ando ver half of Buenos Aires city’s population was born abroad. According to the 1914 National Census, the 80% out of a total population of 7.903.662 people were either Europeans, or their children and grandchildren. Among the remaining 20% (the descendants of the residing population previous to the immigratory wave), about a third were White. Put down in numbers, that meant that an 86.6% or about 6.8 million people residing in Argentina were White.[107] European immigration continued accounting for over half the population growth of the nation during the 1920s,[108] and in smaller waves after the Second World War. Many Europeans migrated in Argentina after the great conflict, escaping hunger and destruction. According to the Argentine records, 392.603 people from the Old World entered the country in the 1940s. In the following decade, the flow diminished because the Marshall Plan improved Europe’s economy, and emigration was not such a necessity; even then, inmigratory records state that between 1951 and 1970 other 256,252 Europeans entered Argentina.[109] From the 1960s, when it comprised 76.1% of the total, increasing immigration from the northern bordering countries (Bolivia, Peru and Paraguay) [110] phenomenon of Mestizaje has significantly increased in certain areas of Argentina, especially the Greater Buenos Aires. This is because the aforementioned countries have Amerindian and Mestizo majorities.[111][112][113]

Young people in Crespo, Entre Ríos. In this city, most Argentinians are descendants from Volga Germans.[114] The city's motto is "Crespo: melting pot, culture of faith and hard work", referring to the Volga Germans, Italians, Spaniards, and other ethnicities that comprise its population.[115]

In 1992, after the fall of the Communist regimes of the Soviet Union and its allies, the governments of Western Europe were worried about a possible massive exodus from Eastern Europe and Russia. President Carlos Saúl Menem -in the political framework of relaciones carnales with the Western World- offered to receive part of that emigratory wave in Argentina. On 19 December 1994, Resolution 4632/94 was enacted, allowing a "special treatment" for all the applicants who wished to emigrate from the republics of the ex-Soviet Union. Summarizing, from January 1994 till December 2000, a total 9,399 Eastern Europeans travelled and settled in Argentina. Of the total, 6,720 were Ukrainians (71.5%), 1,598 were Russians (17%), 526 were Romanians, Bulgarians, Armenians, Georgians, Moldovans, and Poles, and 555 (5.9%) travelled with Soviet passport.[116] An 85% of the newcomers were under age 45, and 51% had terciary level education, so most of them integrated quite rapidly into Argentine society, although some had to work for lower wages than expected at the beginning.[117]

Beyond all the changes that this massive immigratory wave brought about in Argentina's demograhy and ethnic composition, it must not be forgotten the great influence that all these European immigrants and their descendants have exerted –even nowadays- Argentine culture: The Spanish language variety spoken in most of Argentina, the Rioplatense Spanish, has entonation patterns heavily influenced by the southern dialects of the Italian language, especially the Napolitan dialect.[118] Almost all the sports practiced nowadays in Argentina were brought by European immigrants (particularly the British), such as football,[119] rugby, golf,[120] tennis,[121] cycling, car racing, etc. Great glories of the Argentine sport, as Juan Manuel Fangio[122] or Nicolino Locche[123] had direct European ancestry. Regarding music, tango genre appeared partly due to Italian and Spanish influence,[124] and the top artists of the genre had French (Carlos Gardel[125]), Italian (Astor Piazzolla[126]) or Basque ancestry (Roberto Goyeneche[127]). Inside the folklore genre, the most Europe-influenced rhythm is the chamamé,[128] with important musicians such as Chango Spasiuk –with Ukrainian ancestry[129]- or Soledad Pastorutti –with Italian ancestry-. Among the best singer-songwriters of the Argentine rock we may find plenty of Euro-descendants: Charly García, Fito Páez, León Gieco, Pappo, Andres Calamaro, Alejandro Lerner, David Lebón, Lito Nebbia and Gustavo Cerati, among many others.

David Nalbandian is a tennist –born in Unquillo, Córdoba- descendant of Armenian immigrants.

Recent genetic studies have demonstrated that up to 40% of the Argentinians who can be considered phenotypically White may have partial Amerindian or Black African ancestry. The first study on the matter was conducted by genetist Daniel Corach, from University of Buenos Aires in 2005. The results of this study in which DNA from 320 individuals in 9 Argentine provinces was examined showed that 56% of these individuals had at least one Amerindian ancestor.[130] Nevertheless, the study clarified that this type of genetic studies -meant only to search for specific lineages in the mtDNA or in the Y-Chromosome, which do not recombine- may be misleading. For example, a person with seven European great-grandparents and only one Amerindian/Mestizo great-grandparent will be included in that 56%, although his/her phenotype will most probably be Caucasian. On the other side, a separate genetic study on genic admixture was conducted by Argentine and French scientists from multiple academic and scientific institutions (CONICET, UBA, Centres D'Anthropologie de Toulouse). This study showed that the average contribution to Argentine ancestry was 79.9% European, 15.8% Amerindian and 4.3% African.[131]

The most recent study on the matter was conducted by another team led by Daniel Corach in 2009, analyzing 246 samples from eight provinces and three different regions of the country. The results were as follows: The analysis of Y-Chromosome DNA revealed a 94.1% of European contribution (a little higher than the 90% of the 2005 study), and only 4.9% and 0.9% of Native American and Black African contribution, respectively. Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed again a great Amerindian contribution by maternal lineage, a 53.7% -though a little lower than the 56% of the 2005 study-, a little higher 44.3% of European contribution, and only 2% African contribution. The study of 24 Autosomal markers also proved a large European contribution of 78.6%, against 17.3% of Ameridian and 4.1% Black African contributions. The samples were compared with three assumed parental populations, and the MDS analysis plot resulting showed that "most of the Argentinean samples clustered with or closest to Europeans, some appeared between Europeans and Native Americans indicating some degree of genetic admixture between these two groups, three samples clustered close to Native Americans, and no Argentinean sampled appeared close to Africans".[132][133]

Bolivia

Álvaro García Linera
* Álvaro García Linera, a Bolivian politician and current Vice President of Spaniard descent.[134]

White Bolivians make up 15% of the nation's population, or up to 1.4 million.[56] The white population consists mostly of criollos, which consist of families of relatively unmixed Spanish ancestry from the Spanish colonists and also Spanish refugees fleeing the 1936–1939 Spanish Civil War. These have formed much of the aristocracy since independence. Other smaller groups within the white population are Germans, who founded the national airline Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano, as well as Italians, Americans, Basques, Lebanese, Croats, Russians, Polish, and other minorities, many of whose members descend from families that have lived in Bolivia for several generations.

Brazil

Main article: White Brazilian

Brazil is one of the few countries in Latin America that includes racial categories in its censuses: Branco (White), Preto (Black), Pardo (Brown, multiracial), Amarelo (Yellow) and Indígena (Amerindian); categorization is made by sel-identification. Taking into account the data provided by the last National Household Survey conducted in 2008, Brazil would possess the most numerous White population in Latin America, given that a 48,43% -92 million people- of Brazilians self-declared "Brancos".[26] Comparing this survey with previous censuses, a slow but constant decrease in the percentages of self-identified White Brazilians can be noticed: in the 2000 Census it was 53.7%;[137][138] but in the 2006 Household Survey it was 49.9%[139] and in the last 2008 survey it diminished even more, down to current 48.4%.[26] Some analists consider that this decreasing is due to the fact that more Brazilians reappreciate their African ancestry and then they re-classify themselves as "Pardos".

Brazilians of Ukrainian descent celebrate Easter in Curitiba.

Furthermore, some demographers estimate that a 15% of the self-declared White Brazilians have certain degree of African and Amerindian ancestry, for which -if the US one drop rule was applied- they could be classified as "Pardos".[140]

White Brazilian population is spread all over the national territory, but it is concentrated in the four southernmost states, where a 79.6% of the population self-identify as White.[139] The states with more White people are: Santa Catarina (85.7%), Rio Grande do Sul (81.4%), Paraná (71.3%) and São Paulo (70.4%). Other four states have significant proportions of Whites; and they are: Rio de Janeiro (55.8%), Mato Grosso do Sul (51.6%), Minas Gerais (44.2%) and Goiás (40.1%).[141]

By the time Brazil became independent, an estimated 500,000–700,000 Europeans had already left for Brazil, most of them male colonial settlers from Portugal.[142][143] Rich immigrants, who established the first sugarcane plantations in Pernambuco and Bahia, and, on the other hand, banished New Christians and Gypsies fleeing from religious persecution were among the early settlers. In the 18th century, an estimated 600,000 Portuguese arrived, including wealthier immigrants, as well as poor peasants attracted by the Brazil Gold Rush that was going on in Minas Gerais.[144]

After its independence, declared by emperor Pedro II in 1822, Brazil began several campaigns to attract European immigrants, shaped by a manifest policy of Branqueamento (Whitening).[43] During the 19th century the slave labour force was gradually replaced by European immigrants, especially Italians.[145] This happened particularly after 1850, as a result of the end of slave traffic in the Atlantic Ocean and the growth of coffee plantations in São Paulo region.[146][147] European immigration had its momentum peak between mid-19th century and mid-20th century, when nearly five million Europeans migrated to Brazil, most of themItalians, Portuguese, Germans, Spaniards, Poles, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians. Between 1877 and 1903, 1,927,992 inmigrantes entered Brazil, an average of 71.000 people per year. The process reached it peak in 1891, when 215,239 Europeans arrived. The period was caracterized by an intense arrival of Italians (58.5%) and a lower income of Portuguese (20%).[148]

Italian immigrants just arrived in Brazil in 1890.

After the First World War, Portuguese became once more the main immigrant group, and Italians fell to third place. The Spanish immigrants rose to the second place because of the poverty that was affecting millions of rural workers; [149] Germans occupy the fourth place in the list; they arrived especially during the Weimar Republic, due to poverty and unemployment caused by the First World War. .[150] From 1914 to 1918, the entrance of Europeans of other ethnicities increased; among these were people from Poland, Russia and Romania, who emigrated in the 1920s, probably because of politic persecution. Other peoples migrated from the Middle East, especially Arabs from what now is Syria and Lebanon.[148] Summarizing, estimates afirm that during the period 1821-1932, Brazil received 4.431.000 European immigrants.[45]

After the end of Second World War, European immigration diminished significantly, though between 1931 and 1963 1.1 million immigrants entered Brazil, mostly Portuguese. .[145] Besides, by the mid-1970s, many Portuguese emigrated to Brazil after the independence of the African colonies: Angola, Mozambique and Guinea Bissau; some also migrated from Macao, because of the dictatorship installed there.[151][152]

A comprehensive genetic study presented by the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research found that. on average, 'White' Brazilians have >70% European genomic ancestry, whereas 'black' Brazilians have 37.1% European genomic ancestry. It concluded that "The high ancestral variability observed in Whites and Blacks suggests that each Brazilian has a singular and quite individual proportion of European, African and Amerindian ancestry in his/her mosaic genomes. Thus, the only possible basis to deal with genetic variation in Brazilians is not by considering them as members of colour groups, but on a person-by-person basis, as 190 million human beings, with singular genome and life histories".[153]

Chile

*Manuel Pellegrini, former Chilean footballer and ex coach of Real Madrid.[154]
*Hernán Büchi Buc, Chilean economist and politician with Swiss and Yugoslav ancestry.[155]

In 2009, Chile had an estimated population of 16,970,000, of which approximately 8.8 million or 52.7% are white European, with mestizos estimated at 44%.[25] Other studies, found a white majority that would exceed 64% to 90% of the Chilean population.[156][157][158] Chile's various waves of immigrants consisted of Spanish, Italians, Irish, French, Greeks, Germans, English, Scots, Croats, and Palestinian arrivals.

The largest ethnic group in Chile arrived from Spain and the Basque regions in the south of France. Estimates of the number of descendants from Basques in Chile range from 10% (1,600,000) to as high as 27% (4,500,000).[159][160][161][162][163][164][165][166]

In 1848 an important and substantial German immigration took place, laying the foundation for the German-Chilean community. Sponsored by the Chilean government for the colonization of the southern region, the Germans (including German-speaking Swiss, Silesians, Alsatians and Austrians), strongly influenced the cultural and racial composition of the southern provinces of Chile. The German Embassy in Chile estimated 500,000 to 600,000 Chileans are of German origin.[167]

It is estimated that near the 5% of the Chilean population is of Asian origin immigrants descendant, chiefly of the Middle East (i.e. Palestinians, Syrians, Lebanese and Armenians), are around 800,000.[168][169] Chile is home to a large population of immigrants, mostly Christian, from the Levant.[170] Roughly 500,000 Palestinian descendants are believed to reside in Chile.[171][172][173][174][175]

Other historically significant immigrant groups include: Croatia whose number of descendants today is estimated to be 380,000 persons, the equivalent of 2.4% of the population.[176][177] Other authors claim, on the other hand, that close to 4.6% of the Chilean population must have some Croatian ancestry.[178] Over 700,000 Chileans may have British (English, Scottish and Welsh) origin. 4.5% of Chile's population.[179] Chileans of Greek descent are estimated 90,000 to 120,000.[180] Most of them live either in the Santiago area or in the Antofagasta area, and Chile is one of the 5 countries with the most descendants of Greeks in the world.[181] The descendants of Swiss add 90,000[182] and it is estimated that about 5% of the Chilean population has some French ancestry.[183] 600,000 to 800,000 are descendants of Italians. Other groups of European descendants have followed, but are found in smaller numbers. They did transform the country culturally, economically and politically.

Colombia

Main article: White Colombian
78
100
*León de Greiff, a Colombian poet with Swedish and German ancestry.[17]
*Jorge Isaacs Ferrer- Colombian writer, politician and soldier. Son of an English father and a Spaniard mother.[184]

The white Colombian population is approximately 25% of the total population.[185] Mestizo Colombians make up another 50% of the population.[51] White Colombians are mostly descendants of Spaniards, but others are also of Italians, Germans, British, French, Belgians, Irish, Portuguese, and from the Middle-East: Lebanese (Arab diaspora in Colombia)

The Colombian Paisa Region received a strong immigration wave from Spain (Basques, and others from Extremadura and Andalusia) during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.

Ecuador

White Ecuadorians, mostly criollos, descendants of Spanish colonists and also Spanish refugees fleeing the 1936—1939 Spanish Civil War, account for 7%[original research?], or approximately 960,000,[186] of the Ecuadorian population. Most still hold large amounts of lands, mainly in the northern Sierra, and live in Quito or Guayaquil. There is also a large number of white people in Cuenca, a city in the southern Andes of Ecuador, due to the arrival of Frenchmen in the area, in order to measure the arc of the Earth. Cuenca, Loja, and the Galápagos attracted German immigration during the early 20th century, and the Galápagos also had a small Norwegian fishing community until they were asked to leave.

French Guiana

Note: Many definitions of Latin America do not include French Guiana

12% of the population, mostly French.[187]

Paraguay

Ethnically, culturally, and socially, Paraguay has one of the most homogeneous populations in South America. The exact percentage of the white Paraguayan population is not known because the Paraguayan census does not include racial or ethnic identification, save for the indigenous population,[188] which reached 1.7% of the country's total in the last census in 2002.[189] Other sources estimate the other groups. The mestizo population is estimated at 95% by the CIA World Factbook, and all other groups at 5%.[190] Thus, Whites and the remaining groups (Asians, Afro-Paraguayans, others, if any) combine for approximately 3.3% of the total population. The majority of whites are of Spanish descent with others being of Italian, German, or of other European descent.

Peru

Main article: White Peruvian

White Peruvians represent 15% of the population, or 4.4 million people according to the CIA Factbook.[52] They are descendants primarily of Spanish colonists, and also of Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil War; after World War II many German refuges fled to Peru and settled in large cities, while many others descend from Italian, French (mainly Basques), Austrian or German, Portuguese, British, Russians, Croatians, Lebanese, Jordanian, and Syrian immigrant families. The majority of the whites live in the largest cities, concentrated usually in the northern coastal cities of Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, and of course the capital Lima. The only southern city with a significant white population is Arequipa. To the north Cajamarca and San Martín Region are also places with a strong Spanish influence and ethnic presence.

Uruguay

This picture of Uruguayan people demonstrate the impact of European immigration in the country.

Uruguay received between the mid-19th Century and the early 20th Century part of the same migratory influx received by Argentina, though the process started a little earlier. During the period 1850-1900, this country welcomed four waves of European immigrants, mainly Spaniards, Italians and Frenchmen. In smaller numbers also arrived British, Germans, Swiss, Russians, Portuguese, Poles, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Ukranians, Lithuanians, Estonians, Dutch, Belgians, Croatians, Lebanese, Armenians, Greeks, Scandinavians and Irish. The demographic impact of these immigratory waves was even greater than in Argentina: Uruguay evolved from having 70,000 inhabitants in 1830 to have 450,000 in 1875, and a million inhabitants in 1900; i. e., its population became fourteen times larger... in only 70 years! Between 1840 and 1890, 50%-60% of Montevideo's population was born abroad, almost all in Europe. The Census conducted in 1860 showed that 35% of the country's population was made up by foreigners, although by the time of the 1908 Census this figure had decreased to 17%.[191]

The National Institute of Statistics (INE) of Uruguay conducted during 1996-1997 a Continuous Household Survey in 40,000 homes, that included the topic of races in the country. Its results were based on "the explicit statements of the interviewée about the race they consider they belong themselves". These results were extrapolated, and the INE estimated that out of the 2,790,600 inhabitants that Uruguay had at that moment, some 2,602,200 were White (93.2%), some 164,200 (5.9%) were totally or parcially Black, some 12,100 were totally or partially Amerindian (0.4%), and the remaining 12,000 considered themselves Yellow.[192]

A new Enhanced National Household Survey conducted in 2006 touched on the topic again, but this time enfazising on "ancestry" and not on "race"; the results revealed a 5.8% more Uruguayans that stated having total or partial Black and/or Amerindian ancestry. This reduction in the percentaje of self-declared "pure Whites" in between surveys could be caused by a phenomenon of the interviewée giving new value to their African heritage, similar to what has happened in Brazil in the three last censuses. Anyway, it is worth noting that 2,897,525 interviewées declared having only White ancestry (87.4%), 302,460 declared having total or partial Black ancestry (9.1%), 106,368 total o partial Amerindian ancestry (2.9%) and 6,549 total o parcial Yellow ancestry (0,2%).[193] This figure matches external estimates for White population in Uruguay of 87,4%[194] 88%,[25][195] or 90%.[196]

During the last decade many European and American immigrants have entered this country seeking peacefulness and security, and also escaping from pollution and the voracious tax systems in their countries of origin. In 1997, the Uruguayan goverment granted residence rights to only 200 European/American citizens; in 2008 the number of residence rights granted had increased up to 927.[197]

Venezuela

Main article: White Venezuelan

Venezuela has no official race percentages; however, unofficial estimates put the white Venezuelan percentage at 21.6 or 5.7 million people. The majority of white Venezuelans are of Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, German, and other European descent. Nearly half a million European immigrants, mostly from Spain (as a sequel of the Spanish Civil War), and from Italy and Portugal, entered the country during and after World War II, attracted by a prosperous, rapidly developing country where educated and skilled immigrants were welcomed.

See also





References

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  101. Argentina en marcha, Volumen 1. Comisión Nacional de Cooperación Intelectual. 1947. “Para 1826 se admiten 630.000 almas, así repartidas, según Ingenieros: Blancos extranjeros 5.000, Blancos argentinos 8.000, Indios 132.000, Mestizos 400.000, Negros…
  102. Argentina, the Life Story of a Nation. escrito por John W. White, Viking Press (1942), página 124. Citado en World's Great Men of Colour escrito por Joel Augustus Rogers y John Henrik Clarke, editorial Touchstone (1996), página 191.
  103. http://www.vandenberg.co.za/southafricansinpategonia1.htm
  104. http://www.roepstem.net/argentina.html
  105. Yale immigration study
  106. Federaciones Regionales.
  107. History of Argentina, de Ricardo.Levene. University of North Carolina Press, 1937.
  108. Argentina: 1516-1982 From Spanish Colonisation to the Falklands War escrito por David Rock. University of California Press, 1987. ISBN 0-520-05189-0
  109. Migration and Nationality Patterns in Argentina. Fuente: Dirección Nacional de Migraciones, 1976.
  110. Inmigración, Cambio Demográfico y Desarrollo Industrial en la Argentina. Alfredo Lattes y Ruth Sautu. Cuaderno Nº 5 del CENEP (1978). Citado en Argentina: 1516-1982 From Spanish Colonisation to the Falklands War by David Rock. University of California Press, 1987. ISBN 0-520-05189-0
  111. World Statesmen.org: Bolivia
  112. World Statesmen.org: Perú
  113. World Statesmen.org: Paraguay
  114. Construyendo Puentes
  115. Municipalidad de Crespo. Consultado 13-01-2010
  116. Recent Migration from Central and Eastern Europe to Argentina, a Special Treatment? (Spanish) by María José Marcogliese. Revista Argentina de Sociología, 2003.
  117. Ukrainians, Russians and Armenians, from professionals to security guardians. (Spanish) by Florencia Tateossian. Le Monde Diplomatique, June 2001.
  118. Napolitans and porteños, united by the accent. Diario La Nación. (Spanish)
  119. History of a Might House. (Spanish) Diario Clarín, Buenos Aires, 21 Febrero 2003.
  120. Welcome Argentina: Golf
  121. Argentina 200 Años. Vol. 9 1890-1899. Editor José Alemán. Arte Gráfico Editorial Argentino. Buenos Aires. 2010. In April 1892 British immigrants founded the Buenos Aires Lawn Tennis Club. Among the founding members were: Arthur Herbert, W. Watson, Adrian Penard, C. Thursby, H. Mills y F. Wallace. Soon their example was followed by British residents in Rosario; F. Still, T. Knox, W. Birschoyle, M. Leywe and J. Boyles founded the Rosario Lawn Tennis.
  122. F1 Fanatics: Juan Manuel Fangio
  123. Locche. El último amague. Diario Clarín, 8 September 2005.
  124. Comienzos del Tango. por Jorge Gutman. De Norte a Sur (Noticiero Online). Año 21, Nº 241. Septiembre 2001.
  125. Carlos Gardel: Síntesis de su vida y trayectoria. por Pablo Taboada. Todo Tango.
  126. Ástor Piazzolla Associazione musicale culturale Domenico Sarro (Italiano)
  127. El Tango y los Vascos.
  128. Historia de la Música folclórica de Argentina
  129. Chango Spasiuk Estación Tierra.
  130. Estructura genética de la Argentina, Impacto de contribuciones genéticas - Ministerio de Educación de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Nación. (Spanish)
  131. Mezcla génica en una muestra poblacional de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Avena, Sergio A., Goicochea, Alicia S., Rey, Jorge et al. (2006). Medicina (Buenos Aires), mar./abr. 2006, vol.66, no.2, p.113-118. ISSN 0025-7680. (Spanish)
  132. Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA by Daniel Corach, Oscar Lao, Cecilia Bobillo, Kristiaan Van Der Gaag, Sofia Zuniga, Mark Vermeulen, Kate Van Duijn, Miriam Goedbloed, Peter M. Vallone, Walther Parson, Peter De Knijff, Manfred Kayser. First published on-line: 15 Dec 2009. Annals of Human Genetics; Volume 74, Issue 1, pages 65-76, January 2010. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00556.x © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.
  133. How Argentina Became White. Magazine Discover: Science, Technology and the Future.
  134. Ghafour, Hamida (2007-05-04). "Anarchy in the Andes as race divides Bolivia". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1550601/Anarchy-in-the-Andes-as-race-divides-Bolivia.html. 
  135. Girl from Ipanema fights for title
  136. Bellos, Alex (2006-06-17). "World Cup 2006: Priveleged Kaka could be Brazil's best". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2006/jun/17/worldcup2006.sport7. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
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  138. World Statesmen.org: Brazil
  139. 139.0 139.1 PNAD 2006
  140. Blacks in Brazil: the myth and the reality. by Charles Whitaker. Ebony Magazine, 1991.
  141. IBGE. PNAD 2009. População residente, por cor ou raça, situação e sexo
  142. Brasil 500 anos colonial
  143. The Phylogeography of Brazilian Y-Chromosome Lineages
  144. Século XVIII
  145. 145.0 145.1 Entrada de estrangeiros no Brasil
  146. Fim da escravidão gera medidas de apoio a imigração no Brasil – 16/02/2005 – Resumos | História do Brasil.
  147. Café atrai imigrante europeu para o Brasil – 22/02/2005 – Resumos | História do Brasil.
  148. 148.0 148.1 O papel da migração internacional na evolução da população brasileira (1872 a 1972)
  149. IBGE espanhóis
  150. A assimilação dos imigrantes como questão nacional
  151. Portuguese Immigration (History)
  152. Flight from Angola, The Economist, August 16, 1975
  153. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0100-879X2009005000026&script=sci_arttext#Abstract
  154. (Spanish) El chileno Manuel Pellegrini aseguró en su presentación como nuevo entrenador del Real Madrid
  155. Christian, Shirley (1989-07-11). "Santiago Journal; Hope of Chile's Right Rides Hype and a Motorcycle". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/11/world/santiago-journal-hope-of-chile-s-right-rides-hype-and-a-motorcycle.html?pagewanted=1. 
  156. Argentina, como Chile y Uruguay, su población está formada casi exclusivamente por una población blanca e blanca mestiza procedente del sur de Europa, más del 90% E. García Zarza, 1992, 19.
  157. Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.
  158. The Chilean population is rather homogeneous with 95.4 % of its population having European ancestors.
  159. Diariovasco.
  160. entrevista al Presidente de la Cámara vasca.
  161. vascos Ainara Madariaga: Autora del estudio "Imaginarios vascos desde Chile La construcción de imaginarios vascos en Chile durante el siglo XX".
  162. Basques au Chili.
  163. Contacto Interlingüístico e intercultural en el mundo hispano.instituto valenciano de lenguas y culturas. Universitat de València Cita: " Un 20% de la población chilena tiene su origen en el País Vasco".
  164. (Spanish) La población chilena con ascendencia vasca bordea entre el 15% y el 20% del total, por lo que es uno de los países con mayor presencia de emigrantes venidos de Euskadi.
  165. El 27% de los chilenos son descendientes de emigrantes vascos. DE LOS VASCOS, OÑATI Y LOS ELORZA Waldo Ayarza Elorza.
  166. (Spanish) Presencia vasca en Chile.
  167. German Embassy in Chile.
  168. (Spanish) Arabes de Chile.
  169. (Spanish) En Chile viven unas 700.000 personas de origen árabe y de ellas 500.000 son descendientes de emigrantes palestinos que llegaron a comienzos del siglo pasado y que constituyen la comunidad de ese origen más grande fuera del mundo árabe.
  170. Arab.
  171. Chile: Palestinian refugees arrive to warm welcome.
  172. (Spanish) 500,000 descendientes de primera y segunda generación de palestinos en Chile.
  173. (Spanish) Santiago de Chile es un modelo de convivencia palestino-judía.
  174. Exiling Palestinians to Chile.
  175. (Spanish) Chile tiene la comunidad palestina más grande fuera del mundo árabe, unos 500.000 descendientes.
  176. (Spanish) Diaspora Croata..
  177. Splitski osnovnoškolci rođeni u Čileu.
  178. hrvatski.
  179. Historia de Chile, Británicos y Anglosajones en Chile durante el siglo XIX. Retrieved on 2009-04-26.
  180. (Spanish) Embajada de Grecia en Chile.
  181. (Spanish) Griegos de Chile
  182. 90,000 descendants Swiss in Chile.
  183. (Spanish) 5% de los chilenos tiene origen frances
  184. http://www.dec.ufcg.edu.br/biografias/JorgIFer.html
  185. Library of Congress Country Studies. Race and Ethnicity Retrieved November 10, 2007.
  186. Ecuador: People; Ethnic groups. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved on 2007-11-26.
  187. French Guiana: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  188. Paraguayan Census form
  189. II CENSO NACIONAL INDÍGENA DE POBLACIÓN Y VIVIENDAS 2002. Pueblos Indígenas del Paraguay. Resultados Finales
  190. Paraguay: People; Ethnic groups. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved on 2007-11-26.
  191. El Nacimiento del Uruguay Moderno en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. (Spanish)
  192. Encuesta Contínua de Hogares 1996-1997. Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Uruguay. (Spanish)
  193. Perfil Demográfico y Socioeconómico de la Población Uruguaya según su Ascendencia Racial. por Marisa Bucheli y Wanda Cabela. Fuente: Encuesta Nacional de Hogares Ampliada 2006. INE. (Spanish)
  194. World Statesmen.org: Uruguay.
  195. Uruguay: People: Ethnic Groups.
  196. World Reference Desk: Uruguay.
  197. Inmigración norteamericana y europea en Uruguay. (Spanish)
  198. http://web.archive.org/web/20090827210334/http://www.elcomercio.com/noticiaEC.asp?id_noticia=300163&id_seccion=329 Stefanía Fernández is of Galician origin
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