- 1812 - The French army under Napoleon reaches the Kremlin in Moscow.
- 1821 - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica jointly declare independence from Spain.
- 1835 - The HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin aboard, reaches the Galápagos Islands.
- 1862 - American Civil War: Confederate forces capture Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
- 1894 - First Sino-Japanese War: Japan defeats China in the Battle of Pyongyang.
- 1916 - World War I: Tanks are used for the first time in battle, at the Battle of the Somme.
- 1939 - Charles Lindbergh makes his first anti-war national address over all three radio networks.
- 1947 - The US Air Force is separated from the US Army to become a separate branch.
- 1950 - Korean War: United States forces land at Incheon, Korea.
- 1959 - Nikita Khrushchev becomes the first Soviet leader to visit the United States.
- 1963 - Ku Klux Klan bombing of a Black church in Birmingham, Alabama kills four children.