Second International

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The Second International was active between 1889–1916, following on from the First International, which was active between 1864–1876. It was an international socialist umbrella organization. However, social anarchists tended to be excluded. Many of the major leaders were Jews or of partial Jewish ancestry, such as Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Julius Martov, Rosa Luxemburg, Clara Zetkin, Victor Adler, Karl Liebknecht and others, although there were also others, especially the French section. Some of the leaders were funded by the big Jewish banking houses of New York City, such as Jacob Schiff and Max Warburg.[1][2]


See also



  1. Welch 1976, p. 381.
  2. Sutton 1974, p. 186.


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