- 1600 - San Marino adopts its written constitution.
- 1871 - Four major fires break out on the shores of Lake Michigan in Chicago, Peshtigo, Wisconsin, Holland, Michigan, and Manistee, Michigan. The Great Chicago Fire is the most famous of these, having left nearly 100,000 people homeless.
- 1912 - First Balkan War begins: Montenegro declares war against Turkey.
- 1939 - World War II: Germany annexes Western Poland.
- 1941 - World War II: In their invasion of the Soviet Union, Germany reaches the Sea of Azov with the capture of Mariupol
- 1967 - Guerrilla leader Che Guevara and his men are captured in Bolivia.
- 1969 - The opening rally of the Days of Rage occurs, organized by the Weather Underground in Chicago, Illinois.
- 1973 - Yom Kippur War: Gabi Amir's armored brigade attacks Egyptian occupied positions on the Israeli side of the Suez Canal, in hope of driving them away. The attack fails, and over 150 Israeli tanks are destroyed.
- 2001 - U.S. President George W. Bush announces the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security.