|Mayor||Franz Dobusch (SPÖ)|
|Elevation||266 m (873 ft)|
|Population||189,284 (1 April 2009)|
|- Density||1,971 /km² (5,104 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
|Postal codes||4010, 402x, 4030, 404x|
|Area codes||0732, 070|
Linz is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (German: Oberösterreich). It is located in the north centre of Austria, approximately 30 km south of the Czech border, on both sides of the river Danube. The population of the city is 189,284 (2009), and that of the Greater Linz conurbation is 271,000.
- 1 History
- 2 Population development
- 3 Districts
- 4 Economy
- 5 Transport
- 6 Points of interest
- 7 Culture
- 8 Colleges and universities
- 9 Born in Linz
- 10 International relations
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 External links
Holy Roman Empire
It was a provincial and local government city of the Holy Roman Empire, and an important trading point connecting several routes, on either side of the river Danube from the East to the West and Bohemia and Poland from north to the Balkans and Italy to the south. Being the city where the Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III spent his last years, it was, for a short period of time, the most important city in the empire. It lost its status to Vienna and Prague after the death of the Emperor in 1493. One important inhabitant of the city was Johannes Kepler, who spent several years of his life in the city studying mathematics. He discovered, on 15 May 1618, the distance-cubed-over-time-squared — or 'third' — law of planetary motion. The local public university, Johannes Kepler University, is named for him. Another famous citizen was Anton Bruckner, who spent the years between 1855 and 1868 working as a local composer and church organist in the city. The local concert hall "Brucknerhaus" and a local private music and arts university are named after him.
Adolf Hitler was born in the border town of Braunau am Inn but moved to Linz in his childhood. Hitler spent most of his youth in the Linz area, from 1898 until 1907, when he left for Vienna. The family lived first in the village of Leonding on the outskirts of town, and then in an apartment on the Humboldtstrasse in Linz itself. Hitler's parents are buried in Leonding. After elementary education in Leonding, Hitler was enrolled in the Realschule (school) in Linz, as was the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Notorious Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann also spent his youth in Linz.
The association of the city with Hitler's childhood warranted an allusion in a poem by W.H. Auden, September 1, 1939: "Accurate scholarship can/Unearth the whole offense/ From Luther until now/ That has driven a culture mad, Find what occurred at Linz...." To the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz to be his "home town", and envisioned extensive architectural schemes for it, wanting it to become the main cultural centre of the Third Reich. In order to make the city economically vibrant, Hitler initiated a major industrialization of Linz shortly before, and during, World War II. Many factories were dismantled in the newly-acquired Czechoslovakia and then reassembled in Linz, including the Hermann-Göring-Werke (now Voestalpine). In addition to an ordnance depot, Linz has a benzol (oil) plant which was bombed during the Oil Campaign on 16 October 1944.
The Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, located near Linz, was the last National Socialist concentration camps to be liberated by the terrorists of the Allies. While in operation, they were the source of quarrying for stone for Hitler's prestige projects across the Reich. The main camp in Mauthausen is just 25 km away from Linz.
Austrian Civil War
Linz was key location in the Austrian Civil War. On 12 February 1934 the police arrived at the Hotel Schiff to search for weapons. This was a major facility for the SDAPÖ including their paramilitary force, the Schutzbund.
Post-World War II
After the war, the river Danube that runs through Linz — from the western side to the south-eastern side — which separates the Urfahr district in the north from the rest of Linz — served as the border between the Russian and American occupation troops. The Nibelungen bridge that spans the Danube river from the Hauptplatz (main square) was at that time Linz's version of Checkpoint Charlie. The Nibelungen Brücke with the two bridge head buildings is the only architectural plan Hitler ever carried out in Linz.
The agglomeration includes (parts of) 13 other municipalities with together 271,000 inhabitants. Linz is also part of the Linz-Wels-Steyr metropolitan area of Upper Austria, home to around one third of the state's population (460,000 people) and second-largest urban area in Austria.
Linz is divided into 9 districts and 36 statistical quarters. They are:
- Innenstadt: Altstadtviertel, Rathausviertel, Kaplanhofviertel, Neustadtviertel, Volksgartenviertel, Römerberg-Margarethen
- Waldegg: Freinberg, Froschberg, Keferfeld, Bindermichl, Spallerhof, Wankmüllerhofviertel, Andreas-Hofer-Platz-Viertel
- Lustenau: Makartviertel, Franckviertel, Hafenviertel
- St. Peter
- Kleinmünchen: Kleinmünchen, Neue Welt, Scharlinz, Bergern, Neue Heimat, Wegscheid, Schörgenhub
- Urfahr: Alt-Urfahr, Heilham, Hartmayrsiedlung, Harbachsiedlung, Karlhofsiedlung, Auberg
- Pöstlingberg:Pöstlingberg, Bachl-Gründberg
- St. Magdalena: St. Magdalena, Katzbach, Elmberg
Linz is an industrial city. The Voestalpine AG is a large steel concern (founded as the "Hermann Göring Werke" during World War II), and which is known for the LD- ("Linz-Donawitz") procedure for the production of steel, and the former "Chemie Linz" chemical group, which has been split up into several companies. This has made Linz one of Austria's most important economic centres. Linz is also the home of Pez ( makers of peppermint candy).
Linz serves as an important transportation hub for the region of both Upper Austria and, to a lesser degree, southern Bohemia.
The "Blue Danube" Linz Airport lies about 10 km southwest of the town centre. Direct flights include Frankfurt, Düsseldorf and Vienna with additional seasonal routes added during the summer and winter months. Ryanair flies to London Stansted Airport and Air Berlin flies to Berlin-Tegel Airport.
The city also has a Hauptbahnhof (German: central station) on Austria's main rail axis, the West railway, linking Vienna with western Austria, Germany and Switzerland. There are also varying types of river transport on the Danube, from industrial barges to tourist cruise ships.
Local public transport is provided by trams, buses and trolleybuses, operated by Linz Linien GmbH (part of Linz AG). The Pöstlingbergbahn is a tramway which climbs a small mountain at the northwest edge of the town.
Points of interest
The main street "Landstraße" leads from the "Blumauerplatz" to "Taubenmarkt" (Pigeonmarket) near the main square. In the middle of the main square the high "Pestsäule" ("plague column", also known as "Dreifaltigkeitssäule" (Dreifaltigkeit means Holy Trinity)) was built to remember the people who died in the plague epidemics.
Other points of interest include:
- St. Mary's Cathedral (Mariendom), Roman Catholic., in Gothic-Revival style
- Pöstlingberg-Kirche: pilgrimage church on the Pöstlingberg hill
- Brucknerhaus — the concert hall named after the composer Anton Bruckner, who was born in Ansfelden, a small town next to Linz.
- Gugl Stadium, is home to the LASK (Linzer Athletik Sport Klub), which is claimed to be the third oldest football club in Austria.
- The Linzer Landestheater
The city is now home to a vibrant music and arts scene that is well-funded by the city and the state of Upper Austria. Between the Lentos Art Museum and the "Brucknerhaus", is the "Donaulände", which is also referred to as "Kulturmeile" ("culture mile"). This is a park alongside the river, which is used mainly by young people to relax and meet in summer. It is also used for the Ars Electronica Festival and the "Linz Fest". Linz has other culture institutions, such as the Posthof, which is near the harbour, and the Stadtwerkstatt, which is by the Danube river. The Pflasterspektakel, an international street art festival, takes place each year in July in and around the Landstraße and the main square. Linz was the European Capital of Culture in 2009, along with Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.
The recently built Lentos (2003) is a modern art gallery, presenting art from the 20th and 21st centuries. It is situated on the south banks of the river Danube. The building can be illuminated at night from the inside with blue, pink, red, and violet, due to its glass casing.
The Ars Electronica Center (AEC) is a museum and research facility on the north bank of the Danube (in the Urfahr district), across the river from the Hauptplatz (main square). The AEC is a significant world center for new media arts, attracting a large gathering of technologically-oriented artists every year for the Ars Electronica festival. The AEC museum is home to one of the few public 3D CAVEs in Europe.
The Brucknerhaus, the most important concert hall in Linz is named after Anton Bruckner. It is situated just some 200 meters away from the "Lentos". It is home to the "Bruckner Orchestra", and is frequently used for concerts, as well as Balls and other events.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. 36 (1783) in Linz for a concert to be given there, and the work is known today as the Linz Symphony. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz version.
Colleges and universities
- The Johannes Kepler University is situated in the north-east of Linz, and hosts law, business, social sciences, engineering, and science faculties; about 13416 students (October 2007) are enrolled. A spin-off of the university, as well as a Fachhochschule for various computer-related studies, (polytechnic) is located 20 miles north of Linz in the small town of Hagenberg im Mühlkreis. Linz also hosts three other universities:
- University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz, public, for arts and industrial design (approx. 800 students)
- Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance (private) for music (approx. 800 students)
- Catholic-Theological Private University Linz (private) for Catholic theology (approx. 400 students), which has been a Papal faculty since 1978.
Amongst the many "Gymnasien" (high schools) in Linz, is Linz International School Auhof (LISA), which is one of four IB (International Baccalaureate) schools in Austria, and uses English as main language for instruction.
Born in Linz
- Mary Anne of Austria (1683–1754), Queen consort of Portugal
- Alois Riegl (1858–1905) art historian
- Hermann Bahr (1863–1934) writer, playwright, director, and critic
- Frederic "Fritz" Austerlitz (1868) father of Fred Astaire
- Richard Tauber (1891–1948) tenor
- Valie Export (born 1940) artist
- Waltraut Cooper (born 1937) artist, Pioneer of Digital Art
- Herwig van Staa (born 1942) former governor of Tyrol
- Frank Elstner (born 1942) presenter on German television
- Herbert Maneval-Slojewski (born 1946) CEO Heidi Grace Collection
- Shlomo Sand (born 1946) Professor of history at Tel Aviv University and author of the controversial book The Invention of the Jewish People
- Richard Link (born 1951) Canadian space scientist
- Helmut Wiesinger (born 1952) actor, author and stage director
- Anton Koschany (born 1953) news producer
- Elisabeth Theurer (born 1956) horse rider
- Franz Welser-Möst (born 1960) music director, The Cleveland Orchestra and the Zürich Opera House, designated music director of the Vienna State Opera
- Vera Lischka (born 1977) breaststroke swimmer and politician
- Birgit Minichmayr (born 1977) actress
- Christoph Reisinger (born 1977) Oxford University mathematician
- Thomas Marban (born 1979) entrepreneur
- Sybille Bammer (born 1980) tennis player
- Marco Krainer (born 1981) Austrian speciality and TV chef with connections to the United States
Living in Linz:
- Doug Hammond (born in Tampa, Florida, 1942) musician.
- Klaus von Pervulesko (born in Innsbruck, 1945) actor.
- Andrew Edge (born in Leeds, England) musician.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Linz is twinned with:
- Paul Hofmann (1987-04-05). Letting Linz Castle cast a spell. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-12-02.
- Linz City Travel Guide. About Austria. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
- Lundy, Darryl. A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe. The Peerage. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
- Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris. New York: Norton, 1998. p.15
- "Adolf Hitler's hometown in Austria has opened an exhibition...", BBC
- City of Linz Website statistik.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007
- Population linz.at/zahlen – Retrieved 31 October 2007
- Press release Air Berlin. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- Linz Linien GmbH for Local Transport. Linz AG. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- The Plague Column liwest.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007
- The top of the column linz.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007
- St. Martin's Church, Linz (in English). Linz City Tourist Board. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- Mariendom (New Cathedral in Linz). Mariendom. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- Brucknerhaus andreas-praefcke.de – Retrieved 31 October 2007
- LASK. LASK. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- George Tabori. Mein Kampf: Farce in fünf Akten (German). Landestheater. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- Die Spielzeit 2007/2008. Landestheater. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- The Lentos homepage lentos.at – Retrieved 10 November 2007
- Welcome Posthof 04 2008. Posthof. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- Stadtwerkstadt. Stadtwerkstadt. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- Pflasterspektakel Festival. Magistrat der Landeshauptstadt Linz. Retrieved on 2010-07-24.
- European Capital of Culture. Linz Tourist Board. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- Fred Astaire (1899–1987) aka Frederick Austerlitz. Hyde Flippo. Retrieved on 2008-08-24. [dead link]
- Doug Hammond biog. Doug Hammond. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- Sulzer, Balduin. Das musikalische Nashorn (German). Gerhard Brössner. Retrieved on 2008-04-06. [dead link]
- Andrew Edge. Andrew Edge. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- Sumqayıt şəhər icra hakimiyyəti. Beynəlxalq Əlaqələr. Retrieved on 2010-12-29.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Linz|
- LinzGenesis and Museum of the History of Dentistry in Upper Austria
- Landesgalerie (Provincial gallery)
- Nordico – Museum of the City of Linz
- O.K Center for Contemporary Art
- Linz Picture tour through Linz
- 360° Panoramic Photos from Linz
- University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz
- Official homepage of Linz — The Capital of Culture 2009
- Independent Platform of Linz — European Capital of Culture 2009
- Comprehensive independent travel guide to Linz written by a local
- LISA — Linz International School Auhof
- Ars Electronica Centre
- Lentos Art Museum
- Brucknerhaus concert hall
- (German) Linz web site
- (German) Data about the city
- (German) Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance
- (German) Catholic-Theological Private University Linz