At the beginning of his career, he tied for 6-8th at Budapest 1911 (3rd HUN-ch, Zoltán von Balla and Zsigmond Barász won); tied for 7-8th at Breslau (Wrocław) 1912 (18th DSB–Congress, B tourn, Bernhard Gregory won); took 2nd, behind Gyula Breyer, at Temesvár 1912 (4th HUN-ch); won at Debrecen 1913 (5th HUN-ch); tied for 8-9th at Budapest 1913 (Rudolf Spielmann won), took 5th at Mannheim 1914 (Hauptturnier A); took 4th at Vienna 1917 (Quadrangular, Milan Vidmar won), and took 5th at Kaschau 1918 (Richard Réti won).
After World War I, he moved to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as Yugoslavia). In 1923, he tied for 6-7th in Trieste; (Paul Johner won). In 1924, he took 3rd in Györ (7th HUN-ch, Géza Nagy won). In 1925, he took 5th in Budapest (Lovas and Sterk won), and tied for 13-14th in Debrecen (Hans Kmoch won). In 1926, he took 3rd, behind Hermanis Matisons and Savielly Tartakower, in Bardejov (Bártfa, Bartfeld, Bardiów). In 1927 he took 4th in Kecskemét (Alexander Alekhine won).
He represented Yugoslavia in Chess Olympiads:
- In 1926, in 2nd unofficial Chess Olympiad in Budapest – team silver medal;
- In 1927, at third board in 1st Chess Olympiad in London (+4 –3 =8);
- In 1931, at second board in 4th Chess Olympiad in Prague (+7 –3 =6);
- In 1936, at fourth board in 3rd unofficial Chess Olympiad in Munich (+5 –3 =8).
In 1931, he took 13th in Bled (Alekhine won). In 1934, he took 6th in Maribor (Vasja Pirc and Lajos Steiner won). In 1935, he tied for 8-9th in Belgrade (Vasja Pirc and Borislav Kostić won). In 1938, he tied for 5-7th in Ljubljana (Kostić won).
During World War II, Astaloš played for Croatia in a match against Slovakia on first board with Ivan Vladimir Rohaček (1 : 1) in Zagreb in December 1941. He returned to Hungary in 1942. Asztalos became Vice President of the Hungarian Chess Union and Secretary of the FIDE Qualification Committee. He was a professor of philosophy and a languages teacher. He died in Budapest during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 against the Soviet Union.
He was the author of A sakkjáték elemei (Budapest 1951).
Asztalos Memorial has been held regularly in Hungary since 1958 till 1971.
- Lajos Asztalos vs Alexander Alekhine, Bled (03) 1931, French Defense: Classical, Burn Variation Morozevich Line (C11), ½–½
- Lajos Asztalos vs Borislav Kostic, Bled 1931, Nimzowitsch Defense: Scandinavian, Advance Variation (B00), ½–½
- Geza Maroczy vs Lajos Asztalos, Bled 1931, Four Knights Game: Spanish Variation (C49), ½–½
- http://www.anders.thulin.name/SUBJECTS/CHESS/CTCIndex.pdf Name Index to Jeremy Gaige's Chess Tournament Crosstables, An Electronic Edition, Anders Thulin, Malmö, 2004-09-01
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- Litmanowicz, Władysław & Giżycki, Jerzy (1986, 1987). Szachy od A do Z. Wydawnictwo Sport i Turystyka Warszawa. ISBN 83-217-2481-7 (1. A-M), ISBN 83-217-2745-x (2. N-Z).