Konz-Lagers of Yugoslavia
Yugoslav Konzentrations-Lagers (1945-1990): There is a perpetual falsified propaganda from antifascist Allies and liberal-leftists up today, that by the fall of Croatian puppet state (NDH) Yugoslav Titoists allegedly deliberated and closed the Konzentrations-Lagers established from 1941-45 to exterminate Jews, Tzigans, Serbs and other non-Croats. However in the field reality, the most reputed 'Jasenovac' (correct: Jesenovec) camp continued to work intensely up to 1948 being misused for post-war torturing and massacring of 40,000-50,000 Croats (now falsely added as Serbs killed in war); but its late closing was formal and in 1948 it was immediately translocated to disreputed Goli Otok working to 1990. Moreover, other two Croatian camps created in WW2, i.e. these in Lepoglava and Gradiska (Stara Gradiška) really continued to work throughout 7 next decennia up today, being the perpetual sites for iterative torturing and killing of many Croats: 3/4 of Croatian national-rightists so far passed through their prisons, and many ones also perished there.
- 1 Yugoslav-Communist Context
- 2 Konz-Lagers in WWII
- 3 Konz-Lager Jasenovac (Jesenovec)
- 4 Konz-Lager Gradiska (Stara Gradiška)
- 5 Konz-Lager Lepoglava
- 6 Konz-Lager Goli Otok
- 7 Camps in New Croatia
- 8 Konz-Lagers specializing and heritage
- 9 Psycho-Lager Kampor in Rab isle
- 10 Results of Yugoslav Konz-Lagers
- 11 Main Literature
- 12 See Also
- 13 External Links
- 14 Reference
During the communist ('second') Yugoslavia 1945-1990, its regime was falsely presented to external world as an alleged 'democratic' socialism, for that was acceptable and complementary to global interests of liberal-leftists and antifascist powers in post-war world (although their intelligence services almost knew the cruel internal reality within that Yugoslavia). In its regional reality, during a half-century, this Titoist Yigoslavia was the most totalitarian dictature in Europe since Stalin's USSR, although after Stalin's death his Soviet Union was slowly and gradually half-democratized. The simultaneous Yugoslavia during J.B. Tito then persisted to be internally more Stalinist than subsequent USSR, and only after Tito's ilness and death in 1980ies it partly became half-democratized. However, the Yugoslav Secret Police (UDBA) being active up to 1990, then was more cruel and efficaceous than Soviet KGB-police: this UDBA stalked, captured and killed worldwide many inland and exiled political dissidents and national-rightists, reaching and eliminating even these emigrated in western democraties.
Simultaneously also after WWII, this falsely 'democratic-socialist' Yugoslavia was nearly unique in Europe beside Soviet Union, that mostly conserved his Konzentrations-Lagers from precedent war in subsequent full function during the next half-century; several ones work perpetually as torturing sites of political dissidents during the next 7 decennia up today, as e.g. camps Lepoglava and Gradiska. Therefore these 2 Konz-Lagers are the European recorders and among the most durable concentration camps in entire World. In the meantime, these perpetual Yugoslav Konz-Lagers only changed their clientele, but their methodology persisted to be mostly similar or even technically advanced for a modernized and advanced torturing. During Yugoslavia their activities 1946-1990 were mostly a taboo, and only after Yugoslav disaster, their methods and victims were successively presented and professionally elaborated in the specialized periodical 'Politicki zatvorenik' (Political prisoners, Zagreb 1991-2008), and in some new monographs (Jasenovac, Goli Otok, etc.). Here are mentioned only 4 major Konz-Lagers persisting in post-WW2 Yugoslavia up to recently; a dozen minor or shorter-periodical camps, and all individual prisons for political prisoners in Yugoslavia here can be hardly listed.
Konz-Lagers in WWII
During the regime of NDH (Independent Croatian State 1941-1945) ruled by Ante Pavelic as an ally of Hitler, in Croatia worked the next concentration camps (for Croatian comunists, Serbs, Jews, Tsigans, etc.): Djakovo, Jadovno (at Gospic), Jasenovac (i.e. Jesenovec), Jaska, Kerestinec, St. Gradiska, and Tenja (at Osiek).
Konz-Lager Jasenovac (Jesenovec)
Jesenovec township lies in middle Croatia, at the entrance of Una tributary in major river Sava. This best known Croatian Konz-Lager via the falsified propaganda of antifascists and liberal-leftists became the disreputed 'Jasenovac': By their uncontrolled and unprofessional reversing of all related data, antifascists and liberalists falsified not only the shortened duration and inflated victims of this camp, but even falsified its name alone. The war and post-war history of that Konz-Lager was recently documented in details by Ljubica Stefan 1998:
- 1. The original Croatian (Kaykavian) name of this site was Jesenovec (listen: Yessenovets), and actual false-propagandist 'Jasenovac' is its artifical-serbized variant (Јасеновац) and not original name of local Croats.
- 2. This camp was not at all allegedly closed by Tito 1945, but it evidently continued to work intensely in its same site up to 1948; also its late closing was formal and in 1948 it was immediately translocated to disreputed Goli Otok camp - working up to 1990.
- 3. In its secretely prologed function (false declaration was 'closed'), Jasenovac was subsequently in 1945-1948 misused for post-war revenge with torturing and massacring of 40,000-50,000 Croats (now falsely added in back as Serbs killed in war).
- 4. This later anti-Croat massacres in Jasenovac became a strong taboo up to Yugoslavia's disaster 1990, when the related documents and survived witnesses became accessible: but mendacious leftist and antifascist propagandists till now repeat their former political fabrications (on its closing 1945, false name 'Jasenovac', any killed Croat, but 'million' or more massacred Serbs and others there). There is probably no any other Konz-Lager in World with so abundant falsified fabrications, as is now this missnamed 'Jasenovac'.
Konz-Lager Gradiska (Stara Gradiška)
This camp lies on the north bank of Sava river eastwards of Jasenovac. This camp from WW2 was also not closed in 1945, but persisted in its full function during a half century, from 1941-1995. Initially in WW2 its victims were chiefly Serbs, but during the next 5 decennia there were imprisoned almost many Croatian political dissidents: about 2/3 of all Croatian national-rightists in Yugoslavia there were tortured, and many perished there or survived as heavy invalids. In its last years 1991-1995, this camp was captured by Serbian guerrileros of Krajina, resulting by a new major massacre of enslaved Croats there.
This camp lies in northern Croatia westwards of Varazdin town, and it was established in a confiscated catholic monastery that so far is not returned to its former monks. This concentration camp is the very long-lasting one in Europe, persisting continually from 1941 up today in 2008. During 1945-1990, and anew from 2000-2008, it was at least partly misused for torturing many Croatian political dissidents. Among others, the most reputed victims during Yugoslavia there were: the late Croatian cardinal Alojz Stepinac, and the first new Croatian president Franjo Tudjman.
Konz-Lager Goli Otok
This largest and most terrible Yugoslav Konz-Lager (called also Yugoslav Alcatraz) was created simultaneously with the retarded closing of (falsified) camp 'Jasenovac' in 1948. It is located in north Eastern Adriatic Sea, on two next rocky islets: eastern one Goli was for torturing masculine prisoners, and for female prisoners was the western islet 'Grgur' (again false serbized name Гргур: in original Croatian-Chakavian it was Šagargûr). Its masculine camp Goli persisted from 1948-1989, and female camp of 'Grgur' was closed in 1970ies. This is the unique Konz-Lager of Yugoslavia where Croatians were not unique prisoners tortured: there were also often imprisoned other political dissidents or simply 'suspect' persons from subentire Yugoslavia including Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo (Slovenians, Macedonians, and foreigners were its rarer inmates). Only after Tito's death, in its last decade of 1980ies, it imprisoned chiefly vulgar criminals as killers and rarely political dissidents. Now it is nearly unique major Konz-Lager in Croatia completely closed, and abandoned in ruins visited by tourists.
Camps in New Croatia
International antifascists and liberal-leftists (including Wikipedia) now violently promote a falsified propaganda that Croatia under its first president Franjo Tudjman (1995-1999) was a nationalist-autocratic state , and then only after his death it became allegedly 'democratic' when their liberal-leftists (= ex-communists) regained rule there: In the field reality inside, facts and experience are justly inverse as follows. Under precedent Tudjman rule, all former Yugoslav Konz-Lagers were closed and inactive (for he was alone tortured in Lepoglava camp), and also most media were really free and open for publishing both liberal-leftist and national-rightist wiews. Then after his death, when ex-communist leftists anew came on power in Croatia from 2000, with a glamurous propaganda of 'new true democracy', in rality came only a blurred demagogy: 3 ancient Konz-Lagers now are anew activated including political prisoners, and in most media now monopolized by them, only a conformisted liberal-leftist 'verity' is found everywhere, but any national-rightist views now are mostly erased from media. This falsified new demagogy is the best evident in their 3 reactivated camps:
- New main camp Remetinec in southwestern suburb of Zagreb capital: Formerly in Yugoslavia and then during Tudjman, it was a minor prison for some usual criminals, killers etc. Now in recent demagogy it is considerably enlarged and modernised; beside true criminals it is now also misused for torturing political dissidents and national-rightists: there exist now some Croatian witnesses that suffered this demagogic treatement chiefly for being right nationalists.
- The oldest Konz-Lager Lepoglava in recent liberal-demagogy is reactivated: beside the predominating usual criminals (killers etc.), now are also anew tortured there some political dissidents and national-rightists being against ex-communists (now caming on power).
- The third reactivated Konz-Lager Gradiska: it is now partly reopened, and after available data, it is so far probably used almost for usual criminals and killers, with no indications on recent political dissidents being there.
Konz-Lagers specializing and heritage
Although all listed camps served mostly for torturing political dissidents, there existed also a partial specializing in their clientele and methods:
- Konz-Lager 'Jasenovac' (1945-1948): It was mostly specialized for post-war massacring of Croatian national-rightists, and when they were mostly eliminated, it was closed - although some minor groups and individuals were also eliminated subsequently, in usual prisons and in the field.
- Konz-Lager Gradiska: (1945-2005): It was almost specialized for torturing and eliminating Croatian intellectuals, writers and poets - chiefly for their verbal delicts and dissident opinions. Thus beside the usual physical torture, for such selected clientele one also developed very sophisticated methods of additional psychical torturing there.
- Konz-Lager Lepoglava (1945-2008): This was partly a special 'elite' camp, misused for imprisoning some reputed Croatian dissidents. Therefore their treatment there was somewhat less brutal and at least partly similar to other punishment camps elsewhere in world.
- Konz-Lager Goli Otok (1948-1989): This was the very most brutal Yugoslav camp, and one of the worsest in entire Europe. Here one combined the extreme physical and alternating psychical tortures, and almost any of its inmates then do not persist healthy nor normal. It was specialized for torturing and eliminating leftist dissidents, Serbs and other Yugoslavs.
- Konz-Lager 'Grgur' (1948-1976): this satellite islet nearby Goli was misused for torturing (and raping) of unwelcome and suspect females. Also when other Yugoslav Konz-Lagers periodically were ovefilled by political prisoners, some male intellectual dissidents were also tortured there in 'Grgur'.
- Actual heritage (2000-2008): Only Slovenia by its entering in European Union was obliged to essentially correct its camps heritage, mostly adapting its juridical system to European standards. In other successor states from ex-Yugoslavia, the bad heritage of former Konz-Lagers more or less persisted up today, so as there is even now almost better to be a physical killer or drug-dealer, than a radical political dissident that is in practice often stronger punished (and even tortured) than vulgar criminals there.
Psycho-Lager Kampor in Rab isle
The Psycho-Lagers, where one misused medical psychiatry for the 'correcting' i.e. changing and ideological erasing of political dissidents (almost academic intellectuals), formerly were developed chiefly in communist Soviet Union; since its disintegration and collapse of communism, in recent Russia these ones were partly closed or mostly returned to a true medical use of psychiatric hospitals. Actually, such Psycho-Lagers misusing psychiatry for punishing ideological and political dissidents are the most developed in mainland China. In modern Europe the leading countries by Psycho-Lagers and by political 'madmen' imprisoned are Turkey, then Ukraine and Croatia (in modern Russia this problem is more moderate than in these countries). Now in Croatia about 1/5 of false 'patients' in these Psycho-Camps are the sentenced 'ideological madmen' i.e. the political dissidents and right nationalists, including e.g. certain jurists criticizing the actual Croatian president, and also some young people whose destiny was destroyed there solely for inscribed wall graffiti with a nationalist or rightist content.
Kampor Psycho-Lager in Rab island, northeastern Adriatic Sea: In modern Croatia this is the major Psycho-Lager very active for imposing the liberal-leftist 'political correctness' by toxic psycho-pharmaka and for erasing the dissident personalities. It was founded during WW2, initially as an usual Konzentration camp of Italian fascists then ruling there. Since the WW2, it was not completely closed; it became reorganized from 1950ies as a psychiatric hospital but shortly during Tito's regime it partly deviated to anti-dissident Psycho-Camp. After Tito's death up to 1990ies it returned to a regular use of psychiatric hospital; then after Tudjman's death from 1999, with the new liberal-leftist regime on power, it was anew deviating to a major Psycho-Camp for intoxicating and changing political dissidents up today. This is now the strongest and best fortified impenetrable Psycho-Lager in Europe.
Results of Yugoslav Konz-Lagers
Together with Foibe massacres, these successive tortures of Yugoslav Konz-Lagers in 1945-1990 were very efficaceous means for eliminating undesired ethnic groups from Yougoslavia, either by their direct killings, or chiefly by forcing their exile. After all available indications together, about 3/5 of eliminated ethnic victims in post-WW2 Yugoslavia were Croats, then also partly Hungarians, Albanians, Macedonians, and rarely others. The result is that at least 1/3 of preexisting Croats were eliminated from Yugoslav territory (either by massacres or by forcing exile). In some attractive Yugoslav areas, these eliminations were even more efficaceous and radical. E.g. in the fecond plain of Bacska county (northeastern Yugoslavia - now northwestern Serbia) Hungarians were a former majority, but after WW2 there are decimated to 1/5 there. Especially in Dalmatian mainland, aborigine coastal Croats or Chakavians prior to WW2 included 21% of all Croats, and recently they are decimated in 12% only i.e a half of them disappeared in foibe, camps and exile. Moreover, in Montenegro coast 90% of former southern Croats now disappeared being a subtotal genocide there...
- Periodical 'Politicki zatvorenik' (Political prisoners), ed. Croatian association of political prisoners, Zagreb 1990-2007 (http://www.hdpz.htnet.hr/glasilo.html)
- Ljubica Stefan: Poslijeratni Titov logor Jasenovac 1945-1948 (Titoist post-war Konz-Lager Jasenovac 1945-1948), Zagreb 1998.
- Ivan Kosic: Goli otok, najveci Titov konclogor (Goli Otok, the biggest Titoist Konz-Lager). Adamic, 204 p. Rijeka 2003.
Original condensed compilation from above literature and field insights, available by GNU-license.