Jewish crimes against Romanians during the summer of 1940
Jewish crimes against Romanians during the summer of 1940 is a subject which describes atrocities and crimes made by Jews against Romanians during the Romanian evacuation from Bessarabia and Bukovina especially in the summer of 1940. The evacuation took place as a result of Russian ultimatum addressed to Romania in June 1940.
According to the historian Dinu C. Giurescu, Soviet trups entered in Bessarabia and Bukovina, penetrating the Romanian territory by 5 places, "as far back as the night of 27 to 28 June", 3 a.m. At the same time, specialized grups organized anti-Romanian actions to create panic, disorder and general confusion. These kinds of actions took place in cities such as: Chişinău, Cernăuţi, Soroca, Tighina, Reni. The state of mind of the Bessarabian population, since the beginning of the Romanian Army evacuation, administration and Romanian civils, is depicted by the Soviet sources as follows: "... The Russians are indifferent; the Jews acclaim the Soviets intrusion in Bessarabia. The Romanians inhabiting the villages are surprised by the events, and they do not understand what is happening". The documents gathered show that "the aggression acts and mockery" taken against the Romanian Army, which was retreating since June 28, 1940, were initiated and developed by the Soviet Army along with ethnic minorities gangs, "among them were also the Jews".
Diary of King Carol II : Romania’s King Carol II wrote in his diary on June 29, 1940 that the minority population, “the Jews in particular”, attacked the Romanian soldiers, insulting them and mocking at them. Also, on June 30, His Majesty wrote that incidents took place and he repeated that “the Jewish population in particular”, who obstructed the evacuation, shot the clerks and attacked military units; he emphasized the fact that these kind of events happened all over the region. On July 1, the King found out that the situation was similar as far as Jewish aggressions and the communist aggressions were concerned, envisaging especially the officers, who were beaten and mocked at. On July 3, considered to be the last day of the evacuation, he wrote that “the Jews and the communists behaved in a horrible way”, the people who wanted to retreat were obstructed by them, and here he focused on the Romanian Officers, showing that they were assassinated and molested. Unfortunatelly the anti-Romanian actions continued after July 3.
Testimony of Raoul Volcinschi : Mister Raoul Volcinschi, a university professor in city of Cluj-Napoca, who is originary from Cernăuţi, lived the evacuation drama in his birthplace in the summer of 1940. At that moment he was a high school student. Because his family heard on Monte Carlo radio that Romania was forced to cede Bessarabia and Bukovina, his father sent him on June 28, 1940 to take his high school papers in order to flee from the Soviet invasion. In front of the City Hall he saw “on street: five dead bodies of Romanian soldiers whose blood flowed over the pavement dust”. Asking what was happening, he found out that Romanian soldiers were killed by “those”, and they pointed to a group of 12-15-year-old armed Jewish teenagers who hurried to get into two cars. Because he used to play football with them, he recognized them all, since he knew some of them in person and even by their names: Aufleger Feibis, Fiser, Abacumov, Eisinger, Siegfried. Among them he recognized the man who later became a torturer of the Communist Security from Cluj, Sigi Beiner (Bainer).
Testimony of Elefterie Negel : The editor for Bessarabia of the “Universul” newspaper wrote an article which was cenzured. Mister Elefterie Negel was in Chişinău during the Romanians’ nightmare. He described those days: “rows of refugees”, “eyes full of tears”, “broken souls”. Patrols sent by military quarters tried to block the armed gangs which stopped the cars and robbed the refugees. Nests of the communist Jews were observed to be placed in strategic positions, waiting for favourable moments, such as the appearance of the Soviet Army, in order to attack the Romanians who could not flee. A group of communist Jews, whom Mister Negel recognized, appeared in front of the editorial office and they were wainting for him to get out, but the appearance of 12 soldiers made them go away. He also got a phone call from a Jew communist doctor Dorevici, who reminded him that he had been sentenced to death by the revolutionary communist committee in Tatarbunar (1924) and told him that: “We will not hang you, we will be generous, we will rip off a nail every day using the vise”. He took his kids and went to the railway station, but the train was full of people and they nevertheless crowded to enter the train, which made victims. There he found out bad news from the town. Jew lawyers Karol Steinberg and Etea Diner spread lists, written by the communist local organizations, including the names of the Romanians who had to be suppressed. The houses of the Romanian leaders were devastated. The walls were broken with pick-axes, the furniture was confiscated and transported to other places. Before the train reached the first railway station after Chişinău, the Mazarache Church, a significant building for the Romanian history, could be seen burning. The act of setting it on fire was only the beginning of the destruction of the Holy Romanian buildings by the Jew communists.
Why So Much Hate?
“Documents and evidence, official acts and sworn statements are collected and grow in number before one’s eyes. High magistrates and brave officers, who risked their lives to protect, with their power, the retreat and the exodus of Romanians, who witnessed with their own eyes countless acts of savagery, the murder of innocents, stoning and hoot. All of these infamous and criminal gestures were committed by a furious Judaism, whose waves of hate discharged as if from an unseen command. From where comes so much hate? Is this how our goodwill and compassion is repaid? We accepted for many decades the Judaic monopolization and dominance and Judaism is avenging itself in these difficult hours in which we live. And nowhere is there discord, any vehement and public rupture with the deeds of the murderous bands of bloodthirsty cultists. The organized madness against us hasmengulfed towns, cities and villages. Our brothers have forsaken their sick children, elderly parents, properties earned with great difficulty. In their misfortune they could have used an understanding word, just a bit of mercy. Warm support and a kind word, even if just for sentimental reasons, would have been received with gratitude. They were treated with bullets, hacked with axes, many of them gave their lives. Their clothes were ripped from them, and that which they carried with them was stolen, and then they were submitted to heinous and savage treatment. This Romanian mass, of a foolish goodwill toward guests and thieves, deserved somewhat more humane treatment on the part of Jews, who praised themselves until recently as having warm and fraternal sympathies toward our people in times of trouble”.
Starting with 28 iunie 1940, communist supporters from Bessarabia and North Bukovina showed their joy of becoming Soviet citizens, some of them got guns and were waving black lists, intending to punish the people noted there. These black lists were used later to denounce the Romanians who were considered to be "Soviet Union traitors". Other lists destined to executions were written by intellectual Jew communists such as: lawyer Carol Steinberg, lawyer Etea Diner, doctor Dorevici. Jew lawyer Steinberg led a group of Jews who hit the retreating Romanian Army with rocks.
In Cernăuţi City, immediately after evacuation order, Jews tore and sputtered on Romanian flags, and they placed a red soviet flag on the Union Monument. They destroyed the Romanian official symbols as well as the cross on top of the Cathedral and placed the red flag and Stalin’s portrait there. There were devastations and gunshots. The Romanian refugees were attacked, robbed and maltreated/molested. The Catholic priest and some guardians were shot.
The "Universul" newspaper mentioned that the Jewish population displayed an inhuman attitude which indignated even the Russian commanders of the occupation army.
In Chişinău, the Romanian refugees were attacked and robbed. The refugees and the Romanian soldiers were hit with rocks, boiled water, and jerrycan urine. Under the Russian soldiers’ protection, they ripped off the stripes of the Romanian officers, they also cut off the buttons of some soldiers in guffaw, and after that they were taken by the Russian soldiers.
The moment when a group of 20-30 Russian airplanes landed at Chişinău, "the Jews immediately unfolded red flags" and they began to make a manifestation in the streets. The communists recently freed from the local jail joined the manifestation. Both "the Jewish demonstrators and the communists" shouted anti-Romanian slogans, also defamatory for the Romanian Army: "Down with the Romanian Army !", and against the king, "Down with Carol !". They also shouted slogans in favour of the Soviet occupation: "Long live Stalin and the Red Army !". Meanwhile they blocked the streets, did not allow the Romanian refugees to go to the railway station. Trying to make some order so that the refugees could reach the railway station, the police officers Pascu Nicolae, Mateescu Constantin, Severin and Stol were captured by the Jews and executed by gunshot in the street. Other incidents took place in ‘Alexandru cel Bun’ Street, where a Romanian clerk who wanted to go to the railway station was stoped by "a compact crowd of Jews and Russians" who took positions on the pavement and threw with rocks while threatening.
In Soroca, the city hall and the police headquarters were occupied by the Jew communists under the command of the Jewish lawyer Michel Flexer (Flexor). At the police station he delivered a speech against the Romanian administration and then killed the police officer Murafa and his adjunct Eustaţiu Gabriel just in front of the statue of General Poetaş.
The financial administration truck was attacked and the thesaurus was robbed. The postmaster Vartolomei, the lawyer Gheorghe Stănescu and the lieutenant Pavelescu, along with some noncommissioned officers, were captured by the Jews who tore their stripes off . The manager Ion Gheorghe and the captain Georgescu were gunshot. Pavelescu and Vartolomei got free by giving money to some Jews. Noncommissioned Ene was gunshot in the back in his attemp to escape, while the lawyer Stănescu was taken out of the car and gunshot by the Jewish lawyer Pizaresky Alexandru.
While trying to leave with a car, the Major Virtic Gheorghe, the gendarmerie’s commander from Soroca and the captain Ramadan were capturated by the Jews, who disarmed them and tore their stripes off. The priests who tried to leave the city were stopped by the Jews and forced to return.
At Vijniţa, the people who generated disorder were the Jew communists along with the Ukraineans who joined them. The manager of the town sanatorium, the Jewish doctor Winer tore off the Romanian flag, keeping only the red stripe which he tied up over his chest, screaming that "it is the Jews’ moment". Also he forbade the Romanian personnel to leave the sanatorium. The moment when the Soviet Army reached the town was welcomed by the Jewish population led by the Jew Şatran. The assessor and the priest were attacked and robbed by a group of Jews led by the lawyer Raufberger.
Unfortunate events took place at Româneşti in the Lăpuşna county, where the Jew students attacked the teachers, at Reni where the Jews bearing red stripes on their hands aggressed the authorities, at Tighina where the Romanian gendarmes were disarmed by the Jews, who took their uniforms, and at Cetatea Albă where the Jews burned the city hall. At Lipcani, near the Prut River border, the Jews screamed "Long live the Soviet Russia and Stalin !".
On June 29, 1940 king Carol II wrote in his diary "that the Jews in particular" were the people "who attacked and abused our people", also insulting the Romanian officers.
The Foreign Press wrote about the events taking place in Bessarabia and North Bukovina: Corriere della Serra mentioned that on June 29 about 3000 Jews who passed in Bessarabia by Reni attacked civil refugees and the Romanian Army, hitting them with rocks, stopping them to continue their way, also robbing them, taking their guns and destroying the cars. Moreover, Jews tried to instigate the local Romanians against them. Gazzeta dell Popolo confirmed the aggravating situations created by the Jews relating that in Galaţi City, the local communist Jews alongside with the others who came from different places, created disorder, attaking police and military forces, 15 people being dead. The same Gazzeta dell Popolo wrote that after the evacuation of the Romanian soldiers from Cernăuţi City, thousands of Jews, committed many felonies, released the convicts from prisons, gave them guns and "full of anger, started to kill the Romanians in the streets, robbed the banks, private houses, burned churches and palaces'"'. Corriere della Sera also wrote about the events in Galaţi City, namely the fact that the Jews came to Galaţi from all directions in order to reach Bessarabia and, after they had taken the guns from watch soldiers, they attacked the city, shooting, devastating shop windows and hitting Romanian citizens.
The notes of the Romanian Army on July 30, 1940 specify that the Jews in Bessarabia did not flee. They did not leave and instigated to anti-Romanian actions, organizing communist meetings. The refugees from Bessarabia declared that the people who made their evacuation ever harder were local communists, most of them being Jews. They tortured the refugees, also robbed the luggage, threw rocks at them, did not want to let them go further, they took their animals and damaged their vehicles.
In Chişinău, even before the arrival of the Russian troups, Jews from the Bar Association tied red scarfs on their hands and aggressed Romanian clerks. In all the railway stations, from Chişinău to Ungheni, gangs of Jews armed with guns and sticks whipped the Romanian people preventing them from getting on the train. Also in Bukovina, in Cernăuţi, before the arrival of the Soviet soldiers, Jews organized anti-Romanian meetings, devastated churches and assassinated Romanian personalities and officers. A report says that a group of communist Jews of 15-16-year-old teenagers committed crimes and savage acts, killing Romanian soldiers, officers and jandarms, using the Romanians’ bayonets after they disarmed them. Also in Cernăuţi, groups of workers devastated buildings and student residences, opened the gates for convicts, also aggressing the Romanian Army and the population which fled.
On July 1, 1940, La Stampa included the article "Horrors and devastations made by the Jews in Bessarabia and Bukovina", making mention of the manifestations of the Jews’ joy regarding the Soviet occupant army and writing that in Cernăuţi the Jews made a provisional from the communist Jews. The same kind of initiatives were recorded at Reni, Ismail, and other places.
An army note on July 1, 1940 confirmed the fact that even before of Soviet army arrived, the Jewish population in Cernăuţi devastated churches and assassinated many chiefs of the local authorities. The report says that the Cavalry Brigade under the command of Mister Postelnicu crossed the Prut River in a very difficult way, missing officers and soldiers, and part of the equipment because of the attacks and humiliations initiated by the Soviet Army alongside with civil gangs made up of "bolshevics and Jews".
A synthesis of July 2, 1940 shows that the Jews organized revolutionary committees in different cities with a view to take the power. In Cernăuţi, the Jew Salo Brul became commissary of the people, mayor and vice-mayor were also teo Jews, Glaubach and Hitzig, while the prefect was Meer, a Jew as well. The Chişinău communal Soviet was led by lawyer Steinberg, a Jewish Huşi native-born. The local commitee chief of Chilia Nouă was Rabinovici, a Jew doctor from the town. At Soroca, "the leader of the terrorist action" was Leizer Ghinsberg, a Jewish public guardian serving in the local police. Other two Jewish ex-journalists at the newspapers Adevărul and Dimineaţa, Terziman and Cândea, occupied important functions in Bessarabia.
Attempts and assassinations / Propaganda of the deed against the Romanian officials and civilians were reported as committed by the communist Jews. Jewish-communist gangs in Chişinău fluttered red flags, acted in railway stations to determine the people to go out of the trains. The Romanian refugees who could not defend themselves were robbed by these gangs, and only the people who had guns could resist the attacks. Also in Chişinău, a troup of gendarmes saved the theology students from a band of communist Jews who wanted to lynch them. The gendarmes succeeded only after using their guns. But two financial inspectors, Preotescu and Pădureanu, could not be saved, being killed. Also the Jew terrorists killed the assessor and notary of Ceadâr-Lunga, the Tighina County, and the priest Bujacovski in Tighina, ex-senator colonel Adamovici, the police chief in Abaclia, also in the Tighina County. At Cazaclia and Ceadâr-Lunga notaries, priests and policemen were killed. The Jews in Reni, wearing red scarfs, shot two Romanian sailors. This fact determined a riposte of the autorithies and, as a result of the confrontation, about 15-20 communist Jews died.
Atrocities happened at Cetatea Albă, a place where the priests were tortured by the communist gangs of Jews. They burned the priests’ beards with cigarettes and the churches were devastated. In Cernăuţi, the Jew gangs attacked two coaches with Romanian soldiers with rocks, and the attack was rejected only using the guns.
In Brăila, the Birnbaum brothers threatened that "many of the Romanians would find their end" and they affirmed that they had some people on their list to reckon with. A man named Iancu, also called Jean, threatened that the red Sovietic flag would flutter on the Royal Palace in a very short time.
A telegram on July 3, 1940, which came from the border, informed that the Jewish population had a hostile attitude, being more aggressive day after day in the Prut River area. This fact made the places populated by Jews to be suspect of potential communist dangers.
On July 3, 1940, the Hungarian newspaper Pesti Ujsag from Budapest made reference to the "Italian press which condemned the intrigues of the Jews in Romania" showing that the Italian newspapers wrote: "The Jews caused bloody incidents by their provocative attitude".
Other army information tells that in Cernăuţi churches, among which the most important of them, named Sf. Nicolae, were vandalized. At Bolgrad, the communist Jews were in the streets, wearing the Jewish star in six corners and a red scarf. A group of Jews attacked with guns the ammo deposit in Rădăuţi, but the attack was rejected by the watch, and the aggressors left two dead people behind. The action for the assassination of the Romanians in Cetatea Albă town was led by the Jew Abram Carolic. Among the victims there were the archpriest of the county Crişan Folescu, priest Petru Siniţă, the railway station chief and his deputy. Also at Cetatea Albă, the communist Jews halted a train and tried to disarm an artillery division, and only after the Soviet intervention the aggression was stopped. At Volintiri, the gangs of communist Jews terrorized the Romanians and killed some persons, among whom the actuary Ştirbu Iosif. In Bălţi City, the gangs of Jews shot at the Romanian refugees. Meanwhile, the church crosses were broken down, being replaced with red Soviet flags. In Chişinău, the newspapers Sovietskaia Bessarabia and Bessarabskaia Pravda, edited by the Soviet occupation, were managed by the Jewish editors. At Ismail, Jewish millers and bakers instigated the terrorist gangs of Jews against army, spreading the rumour that the army commandeered the flour. They assassinated lt. Alexandrescu and plt. mj. Jianu. Other soldiers participated as well, being manipulated by the Jewish-communist propaganda of the deed (attempts and assassinations). At Reni, a group of Jewish communists with sicks impeded the population who wanted to get on board of the Carpaţi ship which was to leave for Romania. The ship succeed to leave but only after hawsers for anchorage were cut off.
At Ashita commune, Jews shot two Romanian soldiers, who were left behind, in the legs. At Chilia Nouă, gangs of communist Jews devastated the churches, unfolded Soviet flags and impeded the Romanian population to seek refuge.
A Piatra Neamţ native-born soldier, who was wounded, was buried alive by the Jewish Soviet commissaries who ignored his entreaties not to be buried since he had 4 kids at home.
Another ill Romanian soldier, who was carried by a wagon, was killed because the aggressors wanted the wagon. The requests of Romanian officers to let the wagon for the ill soldier were ignored and one of the agressors shot the soldier in the head, crashing his skull.
The Jewish crimes against Romanians continued during the year 1940 and after 1944 under the communist regime brought by soviet tanks.
- Evreii din România (1939-1944), Dinu C. Giurescu
- ”Săptămâna Roşie”, Ediţia august 2006, Paul Goma, p.166 si p.216
- Paul Goma, ”Săptămâna Roşie”, August Edition 2006, p.170
- Paul Goma, ”Săptămâna Roşie”, August Edition 2006, p.171
- Why So Much Hate?, “Neamul Românesc” (1940), Nicolae Iorga
- Săptămâna Roşie (Red Week –Edition August 2006), Paul Goma, p. 162-221
- Buletin de informaţii, Anul 52 Nr. 3 Luna Mai-Iunie 2006
- Evreii din România (1939-1944), Dinu C. Giurescu