- 27BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate.
- 550 - Gothic War (535–552): The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege, by bribing the Isaurian garrison.
- 1120 - The Council of Nablus is held, establishing the earliest surviving written laws of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
- 1362 - A great storm tide in the North Sea destroys the German island of Strand and the city of Rungholt.
- 1412 - The Medici family is appointed official banker of the Papacy.
- 1547 - Ivan the Terrible becomes Tsar of Russia.
- 1581 - The English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism.
- 1909 - Ernest Shackleton's expedition finds the magnetic South Pole.
- 1945 - Adolf Hitler moves into his underground bunker,Führerbunker.
- 1945 - The RAF bombed the city of Magdeburg, killing 16,000 people.