Ireland in the United Kingdom
Ireland (Irish: Éire) was a constituent country of the United Kingdom, in political union with Great Britain from 1800 until 1922. The Acts of Union 1800 was passed by the parliaments of the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain, primarily as a means to disuade France from invading Ireland again and to implement Catholic Emancipation. The situation came to an end in 1922, when the Irish Free State seceded as a result of the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty. A partition also took place and part of Ireland became Northern Ireland.
Despite losing the Parliament of Ireland after the union, much of the administrative system of government from Dublin Castle remained in place, as well as the Privy Council of Ireland and other institutions. Largely due to a campaign by Daniel O'Connell, the anti-Catholic laws were finally repealed in 1829. However, moves to repeal the union with Great Britain and restore the Constitution of 1782, with Ireland under self-government also began to form, leading to the rise of politicans such as Charles Stewart Parnell and the Irish Parliamentary Party, who came to ally themselves to some extent with William Ewart Gladstone, British Prime Minister of the Liberal Party.
The time of Ireland as part of the United Kingdom was one of mixed fortunes. The Great Famine, 1845–1852, a result of potato crop failure, led to the death of around 1 million and many also emigrated, damaging Ireland's demography and leading to resentment over government handling. However, with Catholic Emancipation, a new rising class of Irish professionals also began to emerge. Starting in 1834, rail transport systems were developed and Georgian and Victorian Dublin came to be known as the "second city of the Empire", after London, with significant architectural developments.
The cultural life of Ireland during this time produced several notable figures such as James Joyce, Bram Stoker, George Bernard Shaw, Oscar Wilde and William Butler Yeats, who are known well beyond Irish shores. As well as this body of Anglo-Irish literature, a Celtic Revival took place in which a greater focus on the native Irish Gaelic traditions in music, mythology, language and sport emerged; looking to protect those still extant and also re-popularise them through the rest of Ireland. The Gaelic League, founded by Douglas Hyde, led this movement and Gaelic games also came to be promoted, with the founding of the Gaelic Athletic Association in 1884.