Ignatius of Loyola
|Ignatius of Loyola|
Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens.
|Born||October 23, 1491|
Loyola, Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Kingdom of Castille (currently Spain)
|Died||July 31, 1556 (aged 65)|
Rome, Papal States
|Venerated in||Catholic Church, Anglican Communion|
|Beatified||July 27, 1609 by Pope Paul V|
|Canonized||March 12, 1622 by Pope Gregory XV|
|Attributes||Eucharist, chasuble, book, cross|
|Patronage||Dioceses of San Sebastián and Bilbao, Biscay & Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Military Ordinariate of the Philippines, Society of Jesus, soldiers, Educators and Education.|
Ignatius of Loyola (Basque: Ignazio Loiolakoa, Spanish: Ignacio de Loyola) (ca. October 27, 1491 – July 31, 1556) was a Spanish knight from a local Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and, on 19 April 1541, became its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by absolute obedience to the Pope.
After being seriously wounded in the Battle of Pamplona in 1521, he underwent a spiritual conversion while in recovery. De Vita Christi by Ludolph of Saxony purportedly inspired Loyola to abandon his previous military life and devote himself to labour for God, following the example of spiritual leaders such as Francis of Assisi. After claiming to experience a vision of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus at the shrine of Our Lady of Montserrat in March 1522, he went to Manresa, where he began praying for seven hours a day, often in a nearby cave, and formulating the fundamentals of the Spiritual Exercises. In September 1523, Loyola reached the Holy Land to settle there, but was sent back to Europe by the Franciscans.
Between 1524 and 1537, Ignatius studied theology and Latin in the University of Alcalá and then in Paris. In 1534, he arrived in the latter city during a period of anti-Protestant turmoil which forced John Calvin to flee France. Ignatius and a few followers bound themselves by vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. In 1539, they formed the Society of Jesus, approved in 1540 by Pope Paul III, as well as his Spiritual Exercises approved in 1548. Loyola also composed the Constitutions of the Society. He died in July 1556, was beatified by Pope Paul V in 1609, canonized by Pope Gregory XV in 1622, and declared patron of all spiritual retreats by Pope Pius XI in 1922. Ignatius' feast day is celebrated on July 31. Ignatius is a foremost patron saint of soldiers, the Society of Jesus, the Basque Country, and the provinces of Gipuzkoa and Biscay.
- García Villoslada, Ricardo (1986). San Ignacio de Loyola: Nueva biografía (in Spanish). La Editorial Católica. ISBN 84-220-1267-7. “We deduct that, (...), Iñigo de Loyola should have been born before October 23, 1491.”
- Idígoras Tellechea, José Ignacio (1994). "When was he born? His nurse's account", Ignatius of Loyola: The Pilgrim Saint. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 45. ISBN 0-8294-0779-0.
- The Counter-Reformation. Washington State University. Retrieved on 2013-03-09.
- Summer Fiestas. euskadi.net. Retrieved on 2008-07-24.