The Chechen Republic or, informally, Chechnya, sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. It is located in Southeastern part of Europe, in the Northern Caucasus mountains, in the Southern Federal District. As at 1 January 2010, the population was 1,267,740 (according to Russian State statistics).
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into two — the Republic of Ingushetia and Republic of Chechnya. The latter proclaimed the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, which sought independence. Following the First Chechen War with Russia, Chechnya gained de facto independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Russian federal control was restored during the Second Chechen War. Since then there has been a systematic reconstruction and rebuilding process, though sporadic fighting continues in the mountains and southern regions of the republic.