Bulgarian language

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Bulgarian (IPA: [bɤlgarski ɛzik]) is an Indo-European language, a member of the Slavic branch. Bulgarian was the first Slavic language to be written: it started to appear in writing during the 9th century in the Glagolitic alphabet, which was gradually replaced by an early version of the Cyrillic alphabet over the following centuries. Bulgarian demonstrates several linguistic innovations that set it apart from other Slavic languages, such as the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article (see Balkan linguistic union), the lack of a verb infinitive, and the retention and further development of the proto-Slavic verb system. Various verb forms exist to express unwitnessed, retold, and doubtful action.


Bulgarian alphabet ISO 9 Official transliteration IPA* Name of Letter English equivalent
А а A a A a /a/ or /ɐ/ a a as in "adorable"
Б б B b B b /b/ бъ b as in "bug"
В в V v V v /v/ въ v as in "vet"
Г г G g G g /ɡ/ or /ɟ/ гъ g as in "god"
Д д D d D d /d/ дъ d as in "dog"
Е е E e E e /ɛ/ е e as in "best"
Ж ж Ž ž Zh zh /ʒ/ жъ s as in "treasure"
З з Z z Z z /z/ зъ z as in "zoo"
И и I i I i /i/ и ee as in "see"
Й й J j Y y /j/ и кратко y as in "yes"
К к K k K k /k/ or /c/ къ

c as in "cat"

Л л L l L l /l/, /ɫ/, /ʎ/ лъ

l as in "call"

М м M m M m /m/ мъ m as in "man"
Н н N n N n /n/ нъ n as in "normal"
О о O o O o /ɔ/ or /o/ о o as in "order"
П п P p P p /p/ пъ p as in "pet"
Р р R r R r /r/ ръ r as in "restaurant"
С с S s S s /s/ съ s as in "sound"
Т т T t T t /t/ тъ t as in "top"
У у U u U u /u/ or /o/ y оо as in "tool"
Ф ф F f F f /f/ фъ f as in "food"
Х х H h H h /x/ хъ ch as in Scottish "loch"
Ц ц C c Ts ts /t͡s/ цъ ts as in "fits"
Ч ч Č č Ch ch /t͡ʃ/ чъ ch as in "chip"
Ш ш Š š Sh sh /ʃ/ шъ sh as in "shot"
Щ щ Št št1 Sht sht /ʃt/ щъ sht as in "shtick"
Ъ ъ Ă ă1 A a /ɤ̞/, /ə/ or /ɐ/ ер голям u as in "turn"
Ь ь J j1 Y y /j/ ер малък combined with <о> as ьо, for a pronunciation like yo in "yoyo"

less often with e as ьe, pronounced like ye in "yet"

Ю ю Ju ju1 Yu yu /ju/ ю u as in "menu"
Я я Ja ja1 Ya ya /ʝa/ я ya as in "yarn"

External links

Linguistic reports


Part of this article consists of modified text from Wikipedia, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.