Assumption College

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Assumption College
Motto Je maintiendrai (French)
(1931-1954)
Donec formetur Christus in vobis (Latin)
(1954-present)
Motto in English I will uphold
(1931-1954)
Until Christ be formed in you
(1954-present)
Established October 1, 1904
Type Private
Religious affiliation Roman Catholic (Augustinians of the Assumption)
President Francesco Cesareo, Ph.D.
Academic staff 165
Undergraduates 2,117[1][2]
Postgraduates 437[2]
Location Worcester, MA, USA
Campus Suburban, 185 acre
Newspaper Le Provocateur
Colors Blue and White          
Athletics 23 Intercollegiate Sports
Mascot Pierre the Greyhound
Affiliations AAC&U, NAICU, ACCU, NEASC, AICUM, Northeast-10, COWC
Website www.assumption.edu

Assumption College is a Roman Catholic liberal arts college in Worcester, Massachusetts under the guidance of the Augustinians of the Assumption. When the Assumptionists founded the college for the education of a Franco-American elite in 1904, it was one of the few Counterrevolutionary schools of any kind in the United States. After the close of the Second World War and a change of campus after extensive damage from the 1953 Worcester tornado, the college underwent an aggiornamento under President Fr. Armand H. Desautels. Technically a university, the college confers Bachelor of Arts degrees in its undergraduate program, Master of Arts and Masters of Business Administration degrees in its Graduate program, and Associate's degree through its Continuing Education program in an atmosphere marked by strains of both liberal and anti-liberal Catholic thought.

History

A college founded by the Augustinians of the Assumption

Emmanuel d'Alzon and the alumnates

The roots of Assumption College can be traced to the alumnates founded by the Augustinians of the Assumption in France beginning in the 1870s. Emmanuel d'Alzon borrowed the word alumnate, originally signifying a school attached to a monastery, wherein boys aspiring to holy orders were educated in the Middle Ages. The alumnates accepted literate boys of twelve year's age, and gave them a foundation of Latin and the Classics over five years, after which they would be ready for a two-year study of Philosophy in seminary. Boys were expected to work and do chores, and did not return home during vacation to avoid the influence of the world. They recited the Divine office with the monks who gave them instruction, and were wholly immersed in the life of Catholic religious. Thus, the alumnates were to form strong vocations, priests that would be "warriors against Satan and the world" in Fr. d'Alzon's words,[3] who would work to restore Christendom in France, then only beginning to suffer under the Masonic Third Republic.

An alumnate in Worcester

As the anti-clericalism in France worsened, the Assumptionists expanded their apostolate overseas. They set foot in New York in 1891 and briefly operated an alumnate from 1897 to 1900, while a Louisiana mission among the Cajuns of Louisiana, founded in 1892, ended in discord the same year the New York alumnate closed. Early in 1902, as they explored the possibility of an apostolate to New York's Spanish speakers, a new opportunity opened after Fr. Thomas Darbois, A.A. and his colleagues "conveyed to their guest" Holyoke pastor Fr. Charles Crevier "their enthusiasm for alumnates" over dinner in New York.[4] While Fr. Crevier's initial plan for a vocational school in Granby eventually came to nought, by 1903 the Assumptionist's interest in Massachusetts was piqued, and in late September of that year Fr. Darbois purchased a six acre parcel of land in the Worcester suburb of Greendale for $10,000. The first Mass was said on the site on November 13, 1903, and the school officially opened on October 1, 1904. [5]

"Against Satan and the Revolution"

As longtime Assumption Professor and Chair of the History Department Kenneth J. Moynihan wrote in his centennial history of the college, the Assumptionists had quite a labor adapting their school to its American locale from the first.

The war against Satan and "the Revolution" could not be waged in the twentieth-century American milieu as it had been during the nineteenth century in France. In the decades ahead, much of the drama of the Assumptionist struggle in Worcester would stem from efforts of Fr. d'Alzon's sons to carry on their struggle for the coming of God's kingdom while learning to understand and to adapt to the new environment, a set of conditions that was itself always evolving.[6]

At first, Assumption was not a college in the modern sense. Founded as Our Lady of Consolation, the institution carried no designation of the type of school it was, but was considered an alumnate, with some modifications: the boys paid $10 a month in tuition, room and board (free in the French alumnates), and returned to their families over a six-week summer break.[7] The sum cost of attendance would rise to $160 by 1911. President Fr. Tranquille Pesse changed the institution's name on forms from "Our Lady of Consolation, Apostolic School of the Assumptionist Fathers", to "Assumption College", by which the City of Worcester had already begun to refer to the school because of the order's name;[8] he also called the school a seminary, however.

A Franco-American school

From the first, Assumption benefitted from the Franco-American and French Canadian communities, the school's pools of potential students as classes were taught in French; at the time, French speakers numbered 20,000 in Worcester alone, and Assumption cultivated their support through ethno-cultural organizations. In the early days the most important such group was the Franco-American Catholic Organization, which sought to forge "an elite of educated men" among its stock. Assumption College shared that goal. The 1917-1918 college catalog observed "while it is very necessary for the Church to have zealous and educated priests, it is no less important for it to find, among the faithful, those elite souls who, as a result of their thoroughly Christian training and instruction, exercise a salutary influence in the different professions they choose."[9] The strident identitarian charism at Assumption was a cause of grief and occasional conflict with the overwhelmingly Irish-American, assimilationist hierarchy. Springfield Bishop Thomas M. Beaven complained that he "did not authorize a purely [French-]Canadian college," but did not force the Assumptionists, who promised to "remain very quiet" in ethnic affairs, to admit non-French students to the school.[10] Assumption would remain aloof from the Sentinelle Affair concerning La Sentinelle, the militant Franco-American Woonsocket newspaper operative from 1924 to 1928,[11] but by the school's 25th anniversary festivities in 1929, vicar provincial Fr. Clodoald Sérieix could proclaim the college gave "the Franco-American race in the United States" a means of "survival".[12] Two years later, the Assumption College acquired its first motto, Je maintiendrai, French for "I will uphold," in the sense that "I will uphold the faith, the language and the traditions of my fathers."[13]

Classical curriculum, Catholic discipline

Expansion of the college facilities continued apace, undaunted even after a devastating pre-dawn fire on March 24, 1923.[14] The curriculum ordained that students master Latin, Greek, French, and English, with instruction in history, mathematics, science, geography, and college-level students undertaking several courses in Thomistic philosophy; many classes were taught in French, and some higher level courses in Latin. College juniors and seniors needed to present monthly defenses of philosophical theses before an examining board, and to receive a Bachelor's Degree, had to defend forty-five theses before a faculty jury, a rigorous ordeal that sometimes saw students finish the college program yet leave without a degree.[15]

Student life was well-ordered. Morning and evening prayer, Holy Mass, and weekly spiritual discussions were mandatory, and were "to regularly complete [their] religious obligations, to approach the sacraments often, and to make an annual three-day retreat. Outside books, newspapers, and correspondence was monitored.[16] By 1929, the college had produced 57 priestly vocations. Enrollment reached 300 by the late 1920s, but the Depression reduced the student body to below 200 in 1933; it did not reach 300 again until 1943.[17]

Zeal for the French State

World War II at last witnessed the collapse of the French Third Republic in June 1940, and the establishment of the Catholic French State government under Marshall Henri-Philippe Pétain, a cause for celebration among Franco-Americans, including the Assumptionists at Assumption College. Enthused with the prospect of "a revived Catholic France," on December 6, 1940, the college cordially welcomed Gaston Henry-Haye, the French State's ambassador to the United States, for a visit to campus. Nonetheless, after Pearl Harbor students willingly departed en masse to take up arms for the alliance of plutocracies with the Soviet Union.[18]

Postwar Aggiornamento

New campus, a tornado, a disintegrating society: The Desautels years

Already in 1944, the growing student body, which would undergo an unprecedented surge after war's end, gave rise to a campaign to build a "new Assumption College" to supersede the Greendale campus, which was proving insufficient for student needs.[19] While innocuous in itself, the yearning for a new campus coincided with assimilationist pressures. The brief life of the French State proved a last hurrah for Franco-American identitarians in New England. With the population of French speakers declining, in 1952 the Assumptionists decided to actively recruit non-French students for the first time, and the school, facing a more careerist clientele, began to transition from a classical curriculum to a business orientation grounded in the liberal arts.[20] Shortly thereafter, Fr. Armand H. Desautels assumed the presidency of the college in May, a post he would retain until 1964.

By disposition, Fr. Desautels was a conservative. Early in his tenure he affirmed the college's Augustinian, Assumptionist, Classical, and French character as "essential principles", and affirmed that Assumption "should lead the world toward the love of Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Virgin, of the Church; it should develop liturgical worship," and continue "the fight against the 'revolution' in the sense of Fr. d'Alzon," a strong statement in the 1950s.[21] However, he tended toward pragmatic decisions in the face of crises, which would lead to compromise after compromise as the school encountered a deteriorating society, and allowed outside influences to dilute the school's Catholic character. Shortly after his inauguration, he set up a "lay council" of businessmen to advise the college's Assumptionist community on its governance, after complaints from a few reprobate students, he allowed college students the "liberties" of skipping Mass, morning and evening prayers, Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, and even communal meals. Despite his protestations of identity, in 1954 the school adopted a deracinated motto, Donec formetur Christus in vobis, Latin for "Until Christ be formed in you" (taken from Galatians 4:19).[22]

On June 9, 1953, just a week after classes ended, the college's buildings were destroyed by a tornado, taking the lives of one priest and two of the Antonian Sisters of Mary serving on campus.[23] The devastation served to hasten the move to the new Salisbury Street campus, and disrupt the school's continuity as it moved. "Openness" characterized the new college years before the Second Vatican Council; among the ecumenical initiatives was an Institute on the Person and the Common Good lecture series featuring "Jewish, Catholic, and Protestant leaders, and friendly disposed agnostics or others" spearheaded by Assumptionist superior and political philosopher Fr. Ernest Fortin.[24] In 1967 Fr. Desautels and his successor, Fr. Louis Dion, reconstituted the Board of Trustees, heretofore made up of five Assumptionists, into a body now two-thirds lay, voluntarily ceding most of the order's control of the college,[25] a decision soon to have nefarious consequences.

Unrest: the college's nature in question

In June 1968, the college moved to open a corresponding women's college the next year; the college was wholly coeducational by 1971. That same month, as the college searched for a new president, the search committee considered recommending Dr. Oscar E. Remick, a Congregationalist and former minister associated with Fortin's Institute, for a post until then reserved for Assumptionist priests. Fr. Desautels, no longer president but still provincial superior, finally took a stand and absolutely opposed the choice Remick. However, after Fr. Georges L. Bissonnette was chosen, he recommended Remick for vice president and academic dean, and the committee followed his recommendation. The appointment would soon give the college a headache.[26]

By 1970, the now thoroughly deracinated Assumption College was beset by racial strife. The Black Studies Committee, appointed by Dr. Remick, complained about a lack of funds reserved for Black students, and occupied the yet-unchristened Chapel of the Holy Spirit (Mass had been said in the basement of Alumni Hall before it opened). After a four day sit-in and sleep-in, and a petition signed by 200 scornful students opposed to the sacrilegious mau-mauing, the occupiers departed, but not without Dr. Remick had secured the funds the hooligans demanded.[27] Facing continued dissension from students and lay faculty, the Board of Trustees adopted a set of six recommendations put forward by Dr. Remick, the last of which stated "(6) that the college 'undertake an intensive effort to broaden the basis of support... among all segments of the community.'" In this spirit of inclusivism, a 1970 brochure on the "Purpose, Character, and Policy of Assumption College", while upholding the college's Christian nature and the its devotion to liberal arts and the Classics, stressed ecumenism and made no mention of Assumption's French heritage, railroading its founding stock while pandering to Blacks. But even this was not enough for lay faculty agitators. One priest remarked,

all seem to believe that membership in our community gives them the right to decide what will be the purpose of the community. The problem has never been discussed frankly on campus. I'm not even sure if all the A.A.s [Assumptionists] would insist on the original purpose... Either we sponsor a Catholic liberal arts college, or we don't. We cannot allow a secular education under our auspices.[28]

Relative peace

These uncertainties would persist for decades as Assumption kept with the times. In 1972, Pasquale DiPasquale, Jr. was elected the college's first lay president after a close contest with Acting President Wilfrid Dufault, A.A., an innovation maintained until today, with the exception of Dufault's return as Acting President when DiPasquale departed (to become the first lay president at another Catholic school!)[29] In 1977, some progress was made in defining the Assumptionist involvement in an institution they no longer controlled, when the Trustees and the North American Province affirmed the latter's "primary role in guaranteeing the Catholic character of Assumption College and in promoting a philosophy of education which is conssonant with the highest Christian and classical values and ideas." [30] During the search for the his successor in 1978, the issue of the president's faith was decided: the Trustees ruled he must be Catholic. Joseph H. Hagan was the chosen man, and his long presidency would be marred by little of the acrimony or upending of decades past, and witnessed steady development and expansion.[31] Shortly thereafter, in 1979 Assumption College created the French Institute, which sponsors lectures and conferences aimed at renewing the school's Franco-American heritage.[32] Still, nothing decisive would be done about smoldering faculty dissent until the Cesareo administration.

One critical change did occur during the peaceable Hagan years. In late 1981, the Board of Trustees was reformed to be headed by an Executive Committee of eight, four of whom were to be Assumptionists, and which would have the sole power to nominate the president, amend the college's mission, or revise its Assumptionist sponsorship.[33]

President Hagan left Assumption College in 1998, and his chosen successor was Thomas R. Plough, then president of North Dakota State University, a secular school. While he spoke about the school's Catholic identity, he concentrated on academic prestige, introducing a 'slogan' - Learn. Achieve. Contribute. - that could have come out of any godless campus.[34] In 1999, he invited Massachusetts Lieutenant Governor Jane Swift, a supporter of legal abortion, to give the Commencement Address, leading Bishop Daniel P. Reilly of Worcester, a college trustee, to boycott the graduation ceremony.[35] Plough was known for his gross informality. Even in a time with relaxed standards of dress, the President of Assumption College managed to raise many an unimpressed eyebrow, and was famous for wearing Hawaiian shirts to student and alumni events.[36] When Plough announced his retirement in 2006, the Assumptionists of the Executive Committee were not the only Trustees ready for change.

Assumption College Today: The Cesareo Years

When Dr. Plough announced his retirement in 2006, a writer from the Worcester Telegram & Gazette reflected on how much Assumption had changed in its first century.

No other local institution of higher learning has changed as profoundly from its original concept as Assumption has. Clark University, Worcester Polytechnic Institute and the College of the Holy Cross, despite many changes and expansions, are still recognizable extensions of their original plans and charters.

But it seems likely that the religious brothers who, in 1904, founded an “alumnate” on Fales Street in Greendale to teach French culture and the French language to Massachusetts boys from French-speaking homes would be awed if they could see the elegant campus on Salisbury Street and could peruse the current catalog, which lists more than 50 women as faculty members and offers courses in such things as “Asian Business Practices” and “Psychology of Women.”

As for the Rev. Emmanuel d’Alzon, founder of the celibate “Third Order” that became the Assumptionist order in 1850, he probably would be speechless at the thought of an Assumption College that has no French language requirement, that has a faculty largely composed of lay people from various religious backgrounds, that admits women as well as men, and has a president who is not a member of the Assumptionist order and not even a priest.[37]

The "metamorphosis" amounted to the college becoming less and less distinguishable from its neighbors, and troubled some in the order that had been with the school since its alumnate days. A centennial capital campaign successfully completed, and ready for a more serious face for the Catholic school, the Assumptionists led the Board of Trustees in selecting Renaissance scholar Dr. Francesco Cesareo as the new President of Assumption College. From the first, Cesareo, colloquially known as "Pres Ces" by students daunted by his Italian name, has emphasized the "Catholic intellectual tradition", and spoken against moral relativism, and insisted on the commitment of lay faculty to the college's mission. At his inauguration, he rebranded the college with the more holistic catchphrase "A community of Learning, Faith, and Service."[38] "Applicants" for faculty openings, according to new hiring guidelines, "must be willing to contribute actively to the mission of the College and show respect for the Catholic and Assumptionist identity of Assumption College."[39] Despite minor grumblings among the faculty, Cesareo's tenure is generally viewed as a successful conservative administration, earning respect from advocates of renewal in Catholic higher education.

This 2011 sculpture depicts Assumptionist founder Emmanuel d'Alzon talking to a Black male student and White female student. Neither could have attended the school before its distinctive Franco-American character was diluted and it made the same profitable, politically correct compromises as other American Catholic colleges willing to efface their character and sell out their founders.

Regardless of this progress, Cesareo has been powerless or unwilling to confront many problems that continue to plague the institution he inherited. In a college founded by male emigrants from Europe, students of European extract are vilified for their "privilege",[40][41] while women and non-Whites are accorded disproportionate honor, as seen in a bronze sculpture of Fr. d'Alzon outside of the d'Alzon Library in 2011.[42] Tim Wise has spoken at Assumption twice, in 2008[43] and 2009.[44] The following two years, many student leaders at the college have joined in publicized "Stand Up Against Racism" rallies before Worcester City Hall, at which Wise himself spoke again in 2011.[45] There is an Office for Multicultural Affairs; an activity-organizing body called the ALANA Network, an acronym for African-American, Latino/Hispanic, Asian, and Native-American, operates under its auspices. While European-Americans may participate, the body does not exist for their concerns and there is no analogue to celebrate the culture and identity of most students;[46] an occasional brave White student has registered her concern over this hypocrisy, though.[47]

Assumption College, derisively called Consumption College for its drinking culture, overall tolerates the uncouth behavior of many students, and has exclusively coeducational housing, which encourages promiscuity despite claims to support a Catholic Culture of Life.

AC Allies, a pro-LGBT group, operates on campus with the administration's favor. While the group was formerly openly hostile to the Catholicism, Cesareo, in a move hearkening back to the school's French heritage, unilaterally reorganized the Allies as a group under Campus Ministry. Hence, the Allies pretend to work within the college's Catholic mission, but this seems to be only an act. The group still support homosexual marriage rather than encouraging celibacy,[48] for which it was called out by the Cardinal Newman Center.[49] Ever jockeying for victim status and sympathy even as the group enjoys a steady stream of Student Activities funds, in May 2010 the group held a forum on being "Gay at Assumption."[50]

Campus Ministry also sponsors an active pro-life group, the Assumption Advocates for Life.[51]

Departments

While contrasting policies from the administration may be interpreted as mixed messages, possibly stemming from the influence of the Office of Student Affairs and Office of Multicultural Affairs on the president of the college, philosophical tendencies within departments of the faculty tend to be more pronounced. As of January 2013, the faculty consists of 168 persons, three of whom are Augustinians of the Assumption, two are Religious of the Assumption, one is a Religious Sister of Mercy, and 162 are lay professors.[52]

Political Science

Assumption College sports a strong, Political Science program broadly favorable to the Right, and vocally critical of Marxist regimes and theory, and of deliberative democracy. The term political philosophy may be more appropriate, given the preference for Classical and Medieval authors and their modern students; hence, it may be said that the department retains Assumption's original emphasis on Classics. This tendency is especially valid in Department Chair Bernard J. Dobski, who especially favors Thucydides in his instruction. Solzhenitsyn scholar and widely published conservative liberal thinker Daniel Mahoney has been a member of the department for most of his career, and was recently honored with the newly created Augustine Chair for his scholarship.[53] Leo Strauss is an important influence on the professors of the department, some of whom received instruction from Strauss's students, and his perspective on Plato, Aristotle, Alfarabi, etc. sometimes flavors their interpretations of texts.

Philosophy

The department favors the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle. In contrast to much of academia, the faculty favors natural law ethics and teaches the liberal Kantian ethics and utilitarianism critically, and broadly favors those strands of Continental philosophy most continuous with Ancient and Medieval philosophy, although Dr. Frederick Bauer, author of The Wonderful Myth Called Science and professor for over four decades, is a notable exception, favoring Analytic philosophy and William James.

Theology

The Assumptionists are especially concerned with Theology at Assumption. Of ten professors, two are Assumptionists, along with two religious sisters in modernized habits, one Sister of Mercy and one Religious of the Assumption. One priest, Fr. Barry Bercier, who studied at Assumption as an undergraduate, authored a book critical of Hobbesian liberalism and the rise of the "Student Affairs" philosophy in the university[1]. However, some professors are marked leftists, emphasizing Marxist liberation from class oppressors as integral to Christianity. Professor Richard M. Simpson is even a minister in the Episcopal Church, an Anglican sect Catholics traditionally believed schismatic.[54] The department shifted toward conservatism in Fall 2012 with the hiring of Marc Guerra, author of Christians as Political Animals and Class of 1990 graduate who also earned completed his graduate studies at Assumption in 1994, was hired as the chair of Theology.[55]

Mission of Assumption College

President Cesareo promulgated a mission statement for the college, a framed copy of which is hung in dormitories and other buildings around the college.

Assumption College, rooted in the Catholic intellectual tradition, strives to form graduates known for critical intelligence, thoughtful citizenship and compassionate service. We pursue these ambitious goals through a curriculum grounded in the liberal arts and extending to the domain of professional studies. Enlivened by the Catholic affirmation of the harmony of faith and reason, we aim, by the pursuit of the truth, to transform the minds and hearts of students. Assumption favors diversity and ecumenically welcomes all who share its goals.[56]

The product of a committee, the first two sentences make up one clause, which is coherent yet unrelated to, if not undermined by, the final sentence endorsing diversity and ecumenism.

Presidents of Assumption College

Years following names denote undergraduate class year at Assumption College.

1904 - 1905 Thomas Darbois, A.A.

1905 - 1909 Tranquile Pesse, A.A.

1909 - 1919 Omer Rochain, A.A.

1919 - 1923 Marie-Louis Deydier, A.A.

1923 - 1929 Clodoald Sérieix, A.A.

1929 - 1935 Crescent Armanet, A.A.

1935 - 1946 Rodolphe Martel, A.A.

1946 - 1947 Wilfrid J. Dufault, A.A. '29

1947 - 1952 Henri J. Moquin, A.A. '28

1952 - 1964 Armand H. Desautels, A.A. '30

1964 - 1968 Louis F. Dion, A.A. '35

1968 - 1971 Georges L. Bissonette, A.A. '43

1971 - 1972 Wilfrid J. Dufault, A.A. '29, Acting President

1972 - 1977 Pasquale DiPasquale Jr. HD'80

1977 - 1978 Wilfrid J. Dufault, A.A. '29, Acting President

1978 - 1998 Joseph H. Hagan HD'98

1998 - 2007 Thomas R. Plough

2007 - present Francesco Cesareo

Notable Alumni and Students

  • Hannah Brencher, '10: Blogger; founder of More Love Letters [2].
  • Major General Robert Catalanotti, (US Army), ’80: Former commander of the largest military base in Iraq, and current Senior Military Advisor, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Donald D’Amour, AP ’60, ’64: Chairman and CEO of Big Y Foods; greatest donor to the college to date.
  • Rev. Ernest Fortin, A.A. '46: Scholar, political philosopher and theologian. Professor of theology and philosophy, Assumption College, 1955-1971; professor of theology and political theory at Boston College, 1971-2002.
  • Kevin Forts, '12*: Critic of cultural Marxism and Breivik sympathizer (so-called "pen pal"); nearly completed program but did not graduate due to removal from campus.
  • Hon. Jay Garcia-Gregory, ’66: Federal Judge, U.S. District Court.
  • Mike Gravel, AP '49, attended college for one year but did not finish: U.S. Senator from Alaska, 1969-81 and 2008 presidential candidate.
  • Brian Kelly, '83: Head football coach at the University of Notre Dame.
  • Mary Anastasia O'Grady, '79: Member of The Wall Street Journal editorial board.
  • Rev. Richard Ryscavage, S.J.: Director of Center for Faith and Public Life and Professor of Sociology and International Studies at Fairfield University, nationally known enabler of the illegal immigration invasion of the United States.

References

  1. "Profile: Assumption College", U.S. News & World Report, College Rankings
  2. 2.0 2.1 General Information. Assumption College.
  3. Kenneth J. Moynihan. Assumption College: A Centennial History - 1904-2004. Assumption College: Worcester, Massachusetts, 2004 (12-13).
  4. Moynihan (20-21).
  5. Moynihan (25-26, 40).
  6. Moynihan (26).
  7. Moynihan (33, 42-43).
  8. Moynihan (52-53).
  9. Moynihan (76-77).
  10. Moynihan (62-63).
  11. Moynihan (115).
  12. Moynihan (124).
  13. Moynihan (154).
  14. Moynihan (98).
  15. Moynihan (142-144).
  16. Moynihan (141-142).
  17. Moynihan (121-122).
  18. Moynihan (162).
  19. Moynihan (168).
  20. Moynihan (193).
  21. Moynihan (196).
  22. Moynihan (194, 229-230).
  23. Moynihan (199-201).
  24. Moynihan (221).
  25. Moynihan (232).
  26. Moynihan (235-237).
  27. Moynihan (249-250).
  28. Moynihan (249-251).
  29. Moynihan (261-262).
  30. Moynihan (287).
  31. Moynihan (276-277).
  32. Moynihan (288).
  33. Moynihan (295).
  34. Moynihan (320-321).
  35. Mark Melady. Reilly to boycott Assumption speech Telegram & Gazette. May 19, 1999. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  36. See for instance here.
  37. Albert B. Southwick. The amazing metamorphosis of Assumption College Telegram & Gazette. 2006. Accessed January 10, 2013.
  38. Presidential Inauguration
  39. See the text of the jobs posted at Employment Opportunities: Faculty
  40. Curriculum Vitae of Associate Professor Steven Farrough
  41. Curriculum Vitae of Assistant Professor Cinzia Pica-Smith Pica-Smith actually presented some of her research at the 11th Annual White Privilege Conference, La Crosse, WI, April 7-10.
  42. Dedication of d'Alzon Statue on the Assumption College Campus
  43. Fitchburg State College - Campus Events Calendar
  44. Alison Zadawski. Assumption and OMA celebrate Black History Month Le Provocateur. February 20, 2008. Accessed January 10, 2013.
  45. Mikaela Porter. Students take a stand against racism at Worcester City Hall Le Provocateur. May 4, 2011. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  46. The ALANA Network
  47. Kristin Geyer. Sticks and Stones Le Provocateur. February 2, 2011. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  48. Katie Cetin. AC Allies on a a Catholic Campus [sic] Le Provocateur. May 4, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2013.
  49. Gay Marriage Called Basic Civil Right in Catholic College Student Paper The Cardinal Newman Society (CNS) Blog - Campus Notes. May 5, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2013.
  50. Kate Cousens. Turning tolerance into acceptance: Panel on being gay at AC Le Provocateur. May 4, 2010. Accessed January 10, 2013.
  51. See Julia Gilberto. Advocates for Life to go to Washington. Le Provocateur. October 17, 2012. Accessed January 10, 2013.
  52. Faculty List By Academic Department Count excludes listed professors emeriti. Checked on January 13, 2013.
  53. Bethany Hepp. Dr. Daniel J. Mahoney named as first Augustine Chair Le Provocateur. September 26, 2011. Accessed January 12, 2012.
  54. St. Francis Episcopal Church - Clergy & Staff - Holden, MA
  55. "Nine Faculty Members Appointed." Assumption Magazine (Winter 2013 Volume 11, Number 1). Page 5.
  56. The Mission

External links