1910 1911 1912 1913 1914
1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s
The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the nineteenth Century. The conservative lifestyles during the first half of the decade, as well as the legacy of military alliances, would forever be changed by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, on June 28, 1914. The murder would trigger a chain of events in which, within 30 days, war would break out in Europe. The conflict would drag on until a ceasefire was declared on November 10, 1918 leading to the controversial, one-sided Treaty of Versailles, which would be signed on the June 28, 1919.
The war's end triggered the abdication of aging monarchies and the collapse of the last modern empires of Germany and the Ottomans and Austria-Hungary, the latter splintered into Austria, Hungary, southern Poland (who acquired most of their land in a war with Soviet Russia), Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, as well as the unification of Romania with Transylvania and Moldavia. However, each of these states (with the possible exception of Yugoslavia) had large German and Hungarian minorities, there creating some unexpected problems that would be brought to light in the next two decades.
The decade was also a period of revolution in a number of countries. Mexico spear-headed the trend in November 1910, which led to the ousting of dictator Porfirio Diaz, developing into a civil war that dragged on until mid-1920, not long after a new Mexican constitution was signed and ratified. Russia also had a similar fate, since the Great War led to a collapse in morale as well as to economic chaos. This atmosphere encouraged the establishment of Bolshevism, which would be later renamed as Communism. Like the Mexican Revolution, the Russian Revolution immediately turned to civil war that would drag on until approximately late 1920.
Politics and wars
- World War I (1914–1918)
- Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary in Sarajevo leads to World War I
- The First World War (1914–1918).
- Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles after losing the first world war.
- Armenian Genocide during and just after World War I. It was characterised by the use of massacres, and the use of deportations involving forced marches under conditions designed to lead to the death of the deportees, with the total number of Armenian deaths generally held to have been between one and one-and-a-half million.
- Wadai War (1909–1911)
- Balkan Wars (1912–1913) – two wars that took place in South-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913.
- October Revolution in Russia leads to the first Communist government; assassination of Emperor Nicholas II and the royal family
- The Jallianwala Bagh massacre in British Raj India sows the seeds of discontent and leads to the birth of the Indian Independence Movement.
- Xinhai Revolution causes the overthrow of China's ruling Qing Dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China.
- The Russian Revolution (1917) is the collective term for the series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union.
- October Revolution political upheaval in Russia culminating in Communist takeover of the country.
- Mexican Revolution (1910–1911) Francisco I. Madero proclaims the elections of 1910 null and void, and calls for an armed revolution at 6 p.m. against the illegitimate presidency/dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. The revolution lead to the ouster of Porfirio Díaz (who ruled from 1876 to 1880 and since 1884) six months later. The Revolution progressively becomes a civil war with multiple factions and phases, culminating with the Mexican Constitution of 1917, but combat would persist for three more years.
Major political changes
- Germany abolishes its monarchy and becomes under the rule of a new elected government called the Weimar Republic.
- George V becomes king in Britain.
- The Triple Alliance and Triple Entente are started.
Decolonization and independence
- Easter Rising against the British in Ireland; eventually leads to Irish independence
- Several nations in Eastern Europe get their own nation state, thereby replacing major multi-ethnic empires.
- The Republic of China is established on 1 January 1912.
- Dictionary of Genocide, by Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, ISBN 0313346429, p. 19
- Intolerance: a general survey, by Lise Noël, Arnold Bennett, 1994, ISBN 0773511873, p. 101
- Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, by Richard T. Schaefer, 2008, p. 90