18th century

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17th century - 18th century - 19th century
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1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s

The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.

However, Western historians may sometimes specifically define the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 17151789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.[1][2]

To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century [3] may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the battle of Waterloo in 1815[4] or even later.[5] During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and American revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers were dreaming about a better age without the Christian fundamentalism of earlier centuries. This dream turned into a nightmare during the terror of Maximilien Robespierre in the early 1790s. At first, the monarchies of Europe embraced enlightenment ideals, but with the French revolution, they were on the side of the counterrevolution.

Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in the Americas in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost much of her North American colonies after the American revolution. The industrial revolution started in Britain around the 1770s. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, it would radically change human society and the geology of the surface of the earth.












Significant people

World leaders, politicians, military

Show business, theatre, entertainers

Musicians, composers

Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers

Writers, poets

Philosophers, theologians

Scientists, researchers


Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Literary and philosophical achievements

Musical works

Part of this article consists of modified text from Wikipedia, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.
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  2. Ribeiro, Aileen (2002). Dress in Eighteenth-Century Europe 1715-1789 (revised edition). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300091516. OCLC 186413657. 
  3. Baines, Paul (2004). The Long 18th Century. London: Arnold. ISBN 0340813725. 
  4. Marshall, P. J. (Editor) (2001). The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford History of the British Empire). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0199246777. OCLC 174866045. , "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall, page 1
  5. O'Gorman, Frank (1997). The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688-1832 (The Arnold History of Britain Series). A Hodder Arnold Publication. ISBN 0340567511. OCLC 243883533. 
  6. War of the Spanish Succession, 1701-1714. Historyofwar.org. Retrieved on 2009-04-25.
  7. Historic uk – heritage of britain accommodation guide (2007-05-03). The history of Scotland – The Act of Union 1707. Historic-uk.com. Retrieved on 2009-04-25.
  8. Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History. Britannica.com (1910-01-31). Retrieved on 2009-04-25.
  9. Usman dan Fodio (Fulani leader). Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2009-04-25.
  10. List of Wars of the Crimean Tatars. Zum.de. Retrieved on 2009-04-25.
  11. Len Milich: Anthropogenic Desertification vs 'Natural' Climate Trends. Ag.arizona.edu (1997-08-10). Retrieved on 2009-04-25.
  12. Saudi Arabia – The Saud Family and Wahhabi Islam. Countrystudies.us. Retrieved on 2009-04-25.
  13. Sufism in the Caucasus. Islamicsupremecouncil.org. Retrieved on 2009-04-25.
  14. Yellow Fever Attacks Philadelphia, 1793. EyeWitness to History. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  15. Riedel S (2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 18 (1): 21–5. PMID 16200144.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Porter, Roy (Editor) (2003). The Cambridge History of Science, Volume 4: The Eighteenth Century (The Cambridge History of Science). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521572436. OCLC 123123201. , "The Philosopher's Beard: Women and Gender in Science" by Londra Schiebinger, pages 184–210
  17. Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions, Encyclopædia Britannica
  18. Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. (1998) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p 146 ISBN 0-471-291-98-6