1856 1857 1858 - 1859 - 1860 1861 1862
1820s 1830s 1840s - 1850s - 1860s 1870s 1880s
Events of 1859
- January 24 – Wallachia and Moldavia are united under Alexander John Cuza under the name Romania (see December 1, 1918 for the final unification, Transylvania and other regions are still missing at that time).
- January 28 – The city of Olympia is incorporated in the territory of Washington in the United States of America.
- February 14 – Oregon is admitted as the 33rd U.S. state.
- February 27 – U.S. Congressman Daniel Sickles shoots Philip Barton Key for having an affair with his wife.
- March 9 – The army of Piedmont-Sardinia mobilizes against Austria, beginning the crisis which will lead to the Austro-Sardinian War.
- March 21 – The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania issues the charter establishing the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, the first organization of its kind in the United States and founder of the nation's first zoo.
- April 20 – A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens is published.
- April 25 – Ground is broken for the Suez Canal.
- April 26 – Austro-Sardinian War: Giuseppe Garibaldi's Hunters of the Alps confront Austrian forces led by Field Marshal-Lieutenant Carl Baron Urban at Varese.
- April 28 – The Pomona is wrecked off the English coast, with 424 dead.
- April 29 – Austrian troops begin to cross the Ticino River to Piedmont.
- May 4 – The Cornwall Railway opens across the Royal Albert Bridge, linking the counties of Devon and Cornwall in England.
- May 5 – Border Treaty between Brazil and Venezuela: The two countries agree their borders should be traced at the water divide between the Amazon and the Orinoco basins.
- May 22 – Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies is succeeded by his 23-year-old son Francis II of the Two Sicilies.
- May 30 – Battle of Palestro: The Sardinians defeat the Austrian army.
- May 31 – The Great Clock at the Palace of Westminster, London was started.
- June 4 – Austro-Sardinian War – Battle of Magenta: The French and Sardinians defeat the Austrians.
- June 6 – The British Crown colony of Queensland in Australia is created by devolving part of the territory of New South Wales (Queensland Day).
- June 8 – The discovery of the Comstock Lode in the western Utah Territory setting off the Rush to Washoe
- June 15 – The so-called Pig War border dispute between the Americans and the British on the San Juan Islands begins by the death of the namesake pig.
- June 18 – Aletschhorn, second summit of the Bernese Alps, is first ascended.
- June 24 – Battle of Solferino: The Kingdom of Sardinia and the armies of Napoleon III of France defeat Franz Josef I of Austria in northern Italy; the battle inspires Henri Dunant to found the Red Cross.
- June 30 – Charles Blondin crosses Niagara Falls on a tightrope for the first time.
- July 1 – The first intercollegiate baseball game is played, between Amherst and Williams Colleges.
- July 8
- July 11 – The chimes of Big Ben ring for the first time in London.
- July 11 – By the preliminary treaty signed at Villafranca, Italy, Lombardy is ceded to the French (who immediately cede it to Sardinia), while the Austrians keep Venetia and the French promise to restore the Central Italian rulers expelled in the course of the war. This brings the Austro-Sardinian War effectively to a close.
- July 30 – Grand Combin, one of the highest summits in the Alps, is first ascended.
- August 16 – The Tuscan National Assembly formally deposes the House of Habsburg-Lorraine; ending an ascendancy of 109 years.
- August 27 – Edwin Drake drills the first oil well in the United States, near Titusville, Pennsylvania, starting the Pennsylvanian oil rush.
- August 28 – September 2 – The solar storm of 1859, the largest geomagnetic solar storm on record, causes the Northern lights aurora to be visible as far south as Cuba and knocks out telegraph communication.
- October 16 – John Brown raids the Harpers Ferry Armory in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in an unsuccessful bid to spark a general slave rebellion.
- October 18 – Troops under Colonel Robert E. Lee overpower Brown at the Federal arsenal.
- October 26 – The steamship Royal Charter is wrecked on the coast of Anglesey, Wales with 454 dead.
- November 1 – The current Cape Lookout, North Carolina, lighthouse is lighted for the first time (its first-order Fresnel lens can be seen for 19 miles).
- November 10 – The Treaty of Zürich, reaffirming the terms of Villafranca, brings the Austro-Sardinian War to an official close.
- November 24 – The French Navy's La Gloire ("Glory"), the first ocean-going ironclad warship in history, is launched.
- November 24 – British naturalist Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species, a book which argues that species gradually evolve through natural selection (it immediately sells out its initial print run).
- December 2 – Militant abolitionist leader John Brown is hanged for his October 16 raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.
- December 4 – The Mekteb-i Mülkiye School is founded in the Ottoman Empire.
- December 10 – The Ateneo Municipal de Manila is founded.
- http://html.rincondelvago.com/venezuela_4.html Problemas Limítrofes de Venezuela (In Spanish)