1734 1735 1736 - 1737 - 1738 1739 1740
1700s 1710s 1720s - 1730s - 1740s 1750s 1760s
Events of 1737
- May 28 – The planet Venus passes in front of Mercury. The event is witnessed during the evening hours by the amateur astronomer John Bevis at the Royal Greenwich Observatory. As of 2006, it is still the only such planet/planet occultation that has been directly observed.
- June 21 – In Britain the Theatrical Licensing Act requires plays to be submitted to the Lord Chamberlain for censorship.
- June 30 – Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739: Russian forces under Field Marshal Munnich storm the Ottoman fortress of Ochakov and take prisoner 4,000 Turks.
- July – Austria enters the Russo-Turkish War.
- September 20 – Runner Edward Marshall completes his journey in the Walking Purchase, forcing the cession of 1,200,000 acres (4,900 km2) of Lenape-Delaware tribal land to the Pennsylvania Colony.
- October – The first national stage in Sweden opens when the play Den Svenska Sprätthöken is performed in the native language, by the first native actors, on the stage of Bollhuset in Stockholm.
- October 7 – A tropical cyclone strikes Bengal, India killing approximately 300,000.
- October 16 – An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 9.3 occurs off the shore of Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Tsunamis up to 60m (200 ft) high followed in the Pacific ocean. 
- November 4 – The Teatro di San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated in Naples, Italy.
- Benjamin Franklin creates the Philadelphia Police Force – the first city-paid force.
- The Georg August University of Göttingen is founded.
- The direct male line of the Medici family becomes extinct with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
- Richmond, Virginia is founded.
- Our Lady of Guadalupe is designated the patron saint of Mexico City.
- The oldest existing English language newspaper in the world, The (Belfast) News Letter, is founded in Ireland.
- Lancaster County Prison is first constructed.
- Settling of: