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Events of 1709
- January 6 – Europe's coldest period in 500 years begins during the night, lasting three months and with its effects felt for the entire year. In France, the coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail, and 24,000 Parisians die.
- February 2 – Alexander Selkirk is rescued from shipwreck on a desert island, inspiring the book Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe.
- February – In America, Mardi Gras is celebrated one more time with Masque de la Mobile in the capital of French Louisianne, Mobile (Alabama), before Mobile is moved 27 miles (43 km) down the Mobile River to Mobile Bay in 1711.
- June 27 (Old Style) – Battle of Poltava: Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden, thus effectively ending Sweden's role as a major power in Europe (see below).
- July 8 (New Style) – Battle of Poltava: In the Ukraine, Peter I of Russia defeats Charles XII of Sweden at Poltava (see above).
- July 27 – Emperor Nakamikado accedes to the throne of Japan.
- August 8 – The hot air balloon of Bartolomeu de Gusmão flies in Portugal.
- September 11 – Battle of Malplaquet: Great Britain, the Netherlands and Austria defeat France.
- October 12 – The City of Chihuahua, México is founded.
- December 25 – In London, 10 ships leave for the New York colony, carrying over 4,000 people.
- Trinity School is founded as the Charity School of Trinity Church in New York City.
- De Nostri Temporis Studiorum Rationae (On the Study Methods of Our Times) is published by Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico.
- Priceless medieval altarpieces by Michael Pacher are destroyed.