1688 1689 1690 - 1691 - 1692 1693 1694
1660s 1670s 1680s - 1690s - 1700s 1710s 1720s
Events of 1691
- March 5 – Nine Years' War: French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons.
- March 20 – Leisler's Rebellion: A new governor arrives in New York – Jacob Leisler surrenders after a standoff of several hours.
- March 29 – The Siege of Mons ends in the city’s surrender.
- April 9 – A fire at the Palace of Whitehall in London destroys its Stone Gallery.
- May 6 – The Spanish inquisition condemns and forcibly baptizes 219 xuetas in Palma Majorca. When 37 try to escape the island, they are burned alive at the stake.
- May 16 – Jacob Leisler is hanged for treason.
- June – Ahmed II (1691–1695) succeeds Suleiman II (1687–1691) as emperor of the Ottoman Empire.
- July 12 – Pope Innocent XII succeeds Pope Alexander VIII as the 242nd pope.
- July 12 – Battle of Aughrim: Williamite troops defeat the Jacobites in Ireland.
- October 3 – The Treaty of Limerick, which guarantees civil rights to Catholics, is signed. (It was broken "before the ink was dry")
- October 22 William III of England opens Parliament of England
- Michel Rolle invents Rolle's theorem, an essential theorem of mathematics.
- In New England the two separate colonies of Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony are united into a single entity by an act of the King and Queen of England.
- The Khalkha submit to the Manchu invaders, bringing most of modern-day Mongolia under the rule of the Qing dynasty.