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Events of 1673
- January 22 – Impostor Mary Carleton is hanged in Newgate prison in England for multiple thefts and returning from penal transportation.
- May 17 – In America, trader Louis Joliet and Jesuit missionary-explorer Jacques Marquette begin exploring the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes.
- June 7 – First Battle of Schooneveld: In a sea battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, fought off the Netherlands coast, the Dutch win with the fleet of the United Provinces (commanded by Michiel de Ruyter) against the allied Anglo-French fleet commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine.
- June 14 – Second Battle of Schooneveld: The Dutch fleet again defeats the Anglo-French fleet.
- June 17 – French explorers Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet reach the headwaters of the Mississippi River and descend to Arkansas.
- July 6 – French troops conquer Maastricht.
- July 11 – The Netherlands and Denmark sign a defense treaty.
- July 24 – Edmund Halley enters Queen's College at Oxford, as an undergraduate.
- August 8 – In the American colonies, a Dutch battle fleet of 23 ships demands the surrender of New York City.
- August 9 – Dutch forces under Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge recapture New York from English (regained by English in following year, 1674).
- August 21 – Battle of Kijkduin: The Dutch United fleet under Michiel de Ruyter defeats the English and French fleet.
- August 30 – Leopold I, Spain, Netherlands and the Lutherans form an anti-French covenant.
- September 12 – Prince Willem III occupies Naarden.
- November 9 – King Charles II of England fires the Earl of Shaftesbury.
- November 11 – Polish and Lithuanian military units under the command of soon-to-be-king Jan Sobieski defeat the Turkish army in the Battle of Khotyn. In this battle, rockets of Kazimierz Siemienowicz are successfully used.
- November 13 – Dutch troops commanded by Prince Willem III and Raimundo earl Montecuccoli conquer Bonn.
- France begins its expedition against Ceylon.
- Christopher Wren is knighted.
- Jean-Baptiste Lully writes his first opera, Cadmus et Hermione.
- Chelsea Physic Garden, the second oldest botanic garden in England, is founded by the Society of Apothecaries for the study of medicinal and other plants.
- The Mitsui family's trading and banking house is founded in Japan.
- The Stalactic grotto of Antiparos (Aegean Sea) is discovered.
- Archpriest Petrovich Avvakum writes his Zhitie (Life) as the first Russian autobiography.
- Test Act: Those who refuse to receive the sacrament of the Church of England cannot vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend the universities and assemble for meetings.