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Events of 1658
- January 13 – Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in the Tower of London.
- February 6 – Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea.
- February 26 – The peace between Sweden and Denmark is concluded in Roskilde by the Treaty of Roskilde, under which Denmark is forced to cede significant territory.
- March 22 – The ship Waeckende Boey is wrecked on the coast of Java; the 4 survivors walk overland to Jepara.
- May 1 – Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus are published by Thomas Browne.
- June – Battle of the Dunes: Spain is defeated by the French and English. England is then given Dunkirk for their assistance in the win.
- July – Sarhuda's Manchu fleet annihilates Onufriy Stepanov's Russian flotilla on the Amur.
- September 3 – Oliver Cromwell dies and his son Richard assumes his father's former position as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland.
- France joins England in the war against Spain, which began in 1654.
- Portuguese traders are expelled from Ceylon by Dutch invaders.
- After his father Shah Jahan completes the Taj Mahal, his son Aurangzeb deposes him as ruler of the Mughal Empire.
- The Dutch in the Cape Colony start to import slaves from India and South-East Asia (later from Madagascar).