1651 1652 1653 - 1654 - 1655 1656 1657
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Events of 1654
- April 5 – The Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War, is signed.
- May 8 – The Magdeburg hemispheres are demonstrated: Otto von Guericke proves the existence of atmospheric pressure in front of the Imperial Diet.
- June 3 – Louis XIV of France is crowned at Rheims.
- June 6 – Charles X succeeds his cousin Christina on the Swedish throne. After her abdication on the same day, Christina, now the former reigning queen of a Protestant nation, secretly converts to Catholicism.
- July – The Russian Army seizes Smolensk, and Thirteen Years War starts between Russia and Poland over Ukraine.
- July 10 – Peter Vowell and John Gerard are executed for plotting to assassinate Oliver Cromwell.
- August 22 – Twenty-three Jewish refugees from Brazil settle in New Amsterdam, forming the nucleus of what would be the largest urban Jewish community in history, the Jewish community of New York City.
- September 3 – In the Rump Parliament, the republican party questions Cromwell's pre-eminence.
- September 12 – Oliver Cromwell orders the exclusion of the members of Parliament who are hostile to him.
- October 12 – Carel Fabritius, the most promising student of Rembrandt, dies aged 32 in an explosion at the arsenal at Delft. The Delft Explosion devastates the city in the Netherlands, killing more than 100.
- October 31 – Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria is crowned. His absolutist style of leadership becomes a benchmark for the rest of Germany.
- November 23 – French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense mystical vision that marks him for life.
- The Treaty of Pereyaslav is concluded in the city of Pereyaslav during the meeting between the Cossacks of the Zaporozhian Host and Tsar Alexey I of Russia, following the end to the Khmelnytsky Uprising in Ukraine, which had started in 1648 and which had resulted in the massacre estimated 100,000 Jews.