1641 1642 1643 - 1644 - 1645 1646 1647
1610s 1620s 1630s - 1640s - 1650s 1660s 1670s
Events of 1644
- January 26 – First English Civil War – Battle of Nantwich: The Parliamentarians defeat the Royalists, allowing them to end the 6-week Siege of Nantwich in Cheshire, England.
- February–August – Explorer Abel Tasman's second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia.
- March 24 – In England, Roger Williams is granted an official charter for his Rhode Island Colony, allowing the establishment of a general assembly.
- April 19 to April 22 – Battle of Shanhai Pass: The Manchu Qing Dynasty and Wu Sangui gain a decisive victory over Li Zicheng's Shun Dynasty .
- April 25 – A popular Chinese rebellion led by Li Zicheng sacks Beijing, prompting Chongzhen, the last emperor of the Ming Dynasty, to commit suicide.
- June 3 – Li Zicheng claims himself as the emperor of China.
- June 6 – The invading Manchu army, with the help of Ming general Wu Sangui, captures Beijing, China. This marks the beginning of the Qing Dynasty (also known as the Manchu Dynasty), the last imperial dynasty of China.
- July 2 – English Civil War – Battle of Marston Moor: The Parliamentarians crush the Royalists, ending Charles I's hold on the north of England.
- September 1 – English Civil War – Battle of Tippermuir: Montrose defeats Elcho's Covenanters, reviving the Royalist cause in Scotland.
- September 2 – English Civil War – Second Battle of Lostwithiel: Charles I and the Royalists gain their last major victory.
- September 15 – Pope Innocent X succeeds Pope Urban VIII as the 236th pope.
- November – Battle of Jüterbog: Sweden's forces defeat those of the Holy Roman Empire.
- November 23 – Areopagitica by John Milton is published.
- December 9 – As Christina comes of age, she is made ruling queen of Sweden.
- December – Plague breaks out in Edinburgh.
- The opera Ormindo is first performed in Venice: music by Francesco Cavalli and libretto by Giovanni Faustini.
- Kolumna Zygmunta (Sigismund's Column) is erected in Warsaw to commemorate King Sigismund III Vasa, who moved the capital of Poland from Kraków to Warsaw in 1596.
- Philosopher René Descartes publishes Principia Philosophiae (Principles of Philosophy).
- During the English Civil War, Prince Rupert and his men take Liverpool Castle, which is later reclaimed by Sir John Moore.
- Opechancanough leads the Powhatan Indians in an unsuccessful uprising against the English at Jamestown. This is the last such Indian rebellion of the region.