1577 1578 1579 - 1580 - 1581 1582 1583
1550s 1560s 1570s - 1580s - 1590s 1600s 1610s
Events of 1580
- January 31 – King Henry I of Portugal dies with no direct heirs, precipitating a Succession crisis.
- March 1 – Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. They are published later the same year.
- June 11 – Juan de Garay founds Buenos Aires.
- June 25 – The Book of Concord, a collection of Lutheran confessional documents, is published.
- July 12 – The Ostrog Bible, the first complete printed Bible in a Slavic language, is published.
- August 25 – Battle of Alcântara: Spanish armies, led by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, defending the claim of King Philip II of Spain to the Portuguese throne, defeat the armies of Portuguese claimant António, Prior of Crato.
- September 26 – Sir Francis Drake completes the second circumnavigation of globe. Consequently he is Knighted by Queen Elizabeth.
- 1580–1764 – The first session of the Jewish Vaad (Council of Four Lands) is held in Lublin, Poland; 70 delegates of Jewish local qahals meet to discuss taxation and other issues important to Jewish communities.
- 1580–1640: Iberian Union – King Philip II of Spain becomes King of Portugal under the name Philip I, following the death without heirs of King Henry of Portugal, in a personal union of the crowns, thus maintaining Portuguese independence (in Europe and throughout the Portuguese Empire). The Portuguese House of Habsburg (also called the Philippine Dynasty) rule lasts until 1640.
- Yermak begins the Russian conquest of Siberia with a band of 1,636 men.
- Jesuit missionaries arrive at the court of Akbar, Ruler of the Moghul Empire. 
- Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.