1514 1515 1516 - 1517 - 1518 1519 1520
1480s 1490s 1500s - 1510s - 1520s 1530s 1540s
- January 22 – Battle of Ridaniya: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey.
- February 3 – Cairo is captured by the Ottoman Empire; the Mamluk Sultanate falls.
- August 15 – Portuguese merchant Fernao Pires de Andrade meets Ming Dynasty Chinese officials through an interpreter at the Pearl River estuary and lands at what is now in the jurisdiction of Hong Kong. Although the first European trade expeditions to China took place in 1513 and 1516 by Jorge Álvares and Rafael Perestrello, respectively, Andrade's mission is the first official diplomatic mission of a European power to China commissioned by a ruler of Europe (Manuel I of Portugal).
- October 31 – Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther publishes his 95 Theses (posting them on the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church).
- Organized western merchants make their first contact with China after Rafael Perestrello was the first to land in southern China in 1513; European merchants venture into port at Guangzhou and trade with Chinese merchants there.
- Grand Prince Vasili III of Muscovy conquers Ryazan.
- Selim I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, conquers Egypt and declares himself Caliph.
- A third outbreak of the sweating sickness in England hits Oxford and Cambridge.
- The Dutch city of Ommen is devastated by fire.
- The Fifth Council of the Lateran ends.
- July 10 – Odet de Coligny, French cardinal and Protestant (d. 1571)
- July 16 – Lady Frances Brandon, granddaughter of Henry VII
- July 20 – Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort, Governor of the Netherlands
- August 23 – Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1545)
- date unknown
- January 5 – Francesco Raibolini, Italian painter (b. c. 1450)
- January 23 – Hadım Sinan Pasha, Ottoman (Turkish) grand vizier
- March 7 – Maria of Aragon, queen consort of Portugal (b. 1482)
- March 26 – Heinrich Isaac, Flemish composer (b. c. 1450)
- October 31 – Fra Bartolommeo, Italian artist (b. 1472)
- November 8 – Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, Spanish cardinal and statesman (b. 1436)
- date unknown