1510 1511 1512 - 1513 - 1514 1515 1516
1480s 1490s 1500s - 1510s - 1520s 1530s 1540s
- January 20 – Christian II becomes King of Denmark and Norway.
- March 9 – Pope Leo X succeeds Pope Julius II as the 217th pope.
- March 27 – Juan Ponce de Leon becomes the first European definitely known to sight what is now the territory of the United States (specifically Florida), mistaking it for another island.
- April 2 – Juan Ponce de Leon and his expedition become the first Europeans known to visit Florida, landing somewhere on the east coast.
- May – Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares lands on Lintin Island in the Pearl River estuary. This is followed up by Rafael Perestrello, a cousin of Christopher Columbus, who commands an expedition from Portuguese Malacca in 1516 to land on the shores of mainland southern China, in order to trade with Chinese merchants at Guangzhou.
- June 6 – Italian Wars – Battle of Novara: Swiss troops defeat the French under Louis de la Tremoille, forcing the French to abandon Milan. Duke Massimiliano Sforza is restored.
- August 16 – Battle of the Spurs (or Battle of Guinegate): English troops under Henry VIII defeat a French army under Marshal La Palice.
- August 22 – Thérouanne is captured by Henry VIII of England.
- September – The dispute between Johann Reuchlin and Johannes Pfefferkorn, relative to the Talmud and other Jewish books, is referred to Pope Leo X.
- September 9 – Battle of Flodden Field: King James IV of Scotland is defeated and killed by an English army under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey. James's son, the Duke of Rothesay, becomes James V, King of Scots.
- September 25 – Vasco Núñez de Balboa, "silent upon a peak in Darién", first sees what will become known as the Pacific Ocean.
- October 7 – Battle of La Motta: Spanish troops under Ramon de Cardona defeat the Venetians.
- December – Louis XII makes peace with the Pope and Spain.
- Niccolò Machiavelli writes The Prince.
- Leo Africanus visits Timbuktu, the second city of Songhai Empire.
- Paracelsus begins stydying at Ferrara University.
- Appenzell becomes a member of Old Swiss Confederacy.
- September 24 – Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg, queen of Gustav I of Sweden (d. 1535)
- October 30 – Jacques Amyot, French writer (d. 1593)
- December 23 – Thomas Smith, English scholar and diplomat (d. 1577)
- date unknown
- probable – Elizabeth Seymour, sister-in-law of Henry VIII of England (d. 1563)
- January – Hans Folz, author (b. c. 1437)
- February 20 – King John of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (b. 1455)
- February 21 – Pope Julius II (b. 1443)
- March 10 – John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, English general (b. 1443)
- April 30 – Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, Duke of Suffolk (b. 1471)
- June 13 – Piero Soderini, Florentine statesman (b. 1450)
- September 9 – King James IV of Scotland, Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll, Alexander Stewart (Archbishop of St Andrews), (at the Battle of Flodden Field) (b. 1473)
- October 27 – George Manners, 12th Baron de Ros, English nobleman
- date unknown