1509 1510 1511 - 1512 - 1513 1514 1515
1480s 1490s 1500s - 1510s - 1520s 1530s 1540s
- April 11 – Battle of Ravenna: French forces under Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours defeat the Spanish under Raymond of Cardona, but Gaston is killed in the pursuit.
- October 19 – Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology [Doctor in Biblia].
- October 21 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.
- November 1 – The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti, is exhibited to the public for the first time.
- António de Abreu discovered Timor island and reached Banda Islands, Ambon Island and Seram. Francisco Serrão reached the Moluccas.
- Juan Ponce de León discovers the Turks and Caicos Islands.
- Selim I succeeds Beyazid II as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
- Moldavia becomes a vassal of the Turkish Empire, on the same conditions as Wallachia: the voivode will be designated by the Turks, but will be of the Orthodox faith. Also, the Turks are not allowed to build mosques, to be buried, to own land or to settle in the country.
- Copernicus writes Commentariolus, and moves the sun to the center of the solar system.
- The word "masque" is first used to denote a poetic drama.
- The Florentine Republic is dismantled and the Medici family comes back into power.
- Wolverhampton Grammar School is founded by Sir Stephen Jenyns.
- Ferdinand conquers Navarre.
- The Fifth Council of the Lateran starts.
- Giggleswick School is founded by Rev James Carr.
- Paracelsus moves to Ferrara.
- January 31 – King Henry of Portugal (d. 1580)
- March 5 – Gerardus Mercator, Flemish-German cartographer (d. 1594)
- April 10 – King James V of Scotland (d. 1542)
- date unknown
- Catherine Parr, Sixth and last Queen of Henry VIII of England (d. 1548)
- Galeazzo Alessi, Italian architect (d. 1572)
- Patrick Hepburn, 3rd Earl of Bothwell, Scottish renegade (d. 1556)
- Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln, English admiral (d. 1585)
- Marcin Kromer, bishop of Warnia (d. 1589)
- James Lainez, Jesuit General and theologian (d. 1565)
- Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł, Lithuanian and Polish magnate (d. 1584)
- Tabinshwehti, king who unified Burma (d. 1550)
- Adrianus Turnebus, French classical scholar (d. 1565)
- Jeronimo Zurita y Castro, Spanish historian (d. 1580)
- January 2 – Svante Nilsson, regent of Sweden since 1504 (b. 1460)
- February 2 – Hatuey, Taíno chief
- February 22 – Amerigo Vespucci, Italian merchant and cartographer, discoverer of the New World (b. 1454)
- April 11 – Gaston de Foix, French military commander (b. 1489)
- May 21 – Pandolfo Petrucci, ruler of Siena (b. c. 1450)
- May 26 – Beyazid II, Ottoman Sultan (b. c. 1447)
- June 20 – Goto Yujo, swordsman, artisan (b. 1440)
- August 12 – Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (b. 1463)
- September 19 – John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl, Scottish peer (b. 1440)